Common Translation Issues

The Unrecorded Dialogue Theory explains this by proposing that these words were spoken as part of a discussion where only Jesus's part of the discussion is captured.

O -- This is added to indicate that the following word is in the form of address, using it as a term to identify someone.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act on "yourself," "for yourself" or "by yourself."

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

missing "yourself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "you yourself."

missing "it must" or "let"-- (MW) A helping verb is necessary because the  following verb is a third-person command, which is a verb that demands that something acts or happens in a certain way.

missing "to"-- (MW) The dative case of the following word requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use:  a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," can all be used depending on the context.

-- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

-- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

-- (WM) This is not an simple statement, but a verb form ("mood") of something that might or should happen.

-- (MW) The pronoun is used here explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since this information is already in the verb, the sense is repetitive as we say "your yourselves."

-- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "also" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

ISSUES

WF - Wrong Form -  The "left" is not an active verb but a participle, "leaving."

WF - Wrong Form -  The "may" indicates an subjunctive verb form, but the verb is a third-person command.

WF - Wrong Form -  The "give" is not in the form of a command but something that "should" or "might" be done.

CW - Confusing Word -- The "wherefore" is not the common word usually translated as "wherefore."

CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.

CW - Confusing Word -- The "not" is the subjective negative of opinion with the sense of "not wanting," "not thinking" or not seeming when used use a non-opinion verb.

CW - Confusing Word -- The word translated as "if" has more of a probability of "if" alone, more like our "when."

CW - Confusing Word -- The word translated as "do" is not the helper verb but means "make" or "perform."

CW - Confusing Word -- The verb form of "eat" translated with the helper verb, "shall," is not the future tense but a possibility requiring "should" or "might" as a helper verb.

CW - Confusing Word -- The word translated as "which" is more like "the one" than "which" or "who."

CT - Confusing Tense -- This English verb could indicate the past, but the tense is the present.

WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" should be "look."

MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.

MW - Missing Word -- The word "it must" or "let" is not shown in the English translation.

MW - Missing Word -- The verb is third-person command, which required either an "it must" or "let" as a helping verb.

MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.

MW - Missing Word -- The word "should" needed from the form of the verb is not shown in the English translation.

MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

HN -- Number Number -- This verb is a change from a plural to singular verb as Jesus coes from addressing the crowd to a single person.

IW - Inserted Word -- The word "he" doesn't exist in the source.

IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.

WM  - Wrong Mood  - The verb "believe" is translated as a command, but the Greek word is not a command.

WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "and" doesn't appear here but before the verb for rest.

WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" indicates the future tense, but that is not the tense here.

WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb  is the present tense, but Greek is in the simple (imperfect) past.

WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).

WN  - Wrong Number- The word "believe" is translated as plural but it is singular.

WN  - Wrong Number- The word "heaven" is translated as singular but it is plural, "skies."

WV  - Wrong Voice - The verb is in the middle voice requiring the concept of "yourselves" as its object.

WV - Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as passive but it is active.

OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "behold" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.

MM -- Many Meanings -- This word has several different meanings that work here and is a form of wordplay.

UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "synagogues" means "meeting." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "prophets" means "shining light" or "oracle." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

ARTICLES

(article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

(article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

the -- (IW) There is  nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source. A singular noun without a definite article should have an indefinite article, "a" not the definitie article, "the."

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

PRONOUNS

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the word is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The dative case of the following word requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use:  a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," can all be used depending on the context.

The form of this verb is either passive or the middle voice. The sense of the middle voice is that the subject is to  act "for yourself" or "by yourself."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

We -- This is from the first-person, plural form of the verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

she -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

things -- Though the subject is plural, the verb is singular because neutral plural verbs are treated as a collective.

things  - There is no word, "things," in the Greek source, but this word comes from the neutral, plural form of the previous adjective.

he -- The subject of the clause in Greek is in the form of an object because the verb in the clause is an infinitive.

him -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

thee: -- The word translated as "thee" is the form of the second person pronoun required by the preposition to show motion.

thee: -- The word translated as "thee" is the form of the second person pronoun required by the preposition to show a position.

HELPING VERBS

do -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

did -- This helping verb is added to make this a negative sentence.

is -- This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

shall -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "shall" in the Greek source. The following verb is not the future tense nor in a form that requires a "might" or "should."

may -- This helping verb "may" indicates that the verb indicates a possibility. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

may -- (WF) This indicates that the following verb is a subjunctive but it isn't that form. Since this is a third-person command, this should be an "it must" or a "let" because it commands that something to act or happen in a certain way.

must -- (WW) The helping verb here should be either "should" or "might" because it comes from the subjunctive form of the verb.

make -- This verb doesn't exist in the Greek, but it is used to transform the Greek verb into a verbal phrase.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past.

have -- This helping verb is used to create an English verb-object combination to capture the meaning of the Greek verb.

-- This object is used to capture the meaning of the verb.

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

untranslated "has" -- (MW) The verb is the tense of an action competed in the past. In requires that a helping verb "has" or "have" to indicate that tense as a helping verb before it in English.

untranslated "might" (MW) The verb is in the form that indicates something is possible. In requires that a helping verb "might" or "should" to the possibility intended in English.

had -- This helping verb "had" indicates that the verb is the past tense, but the verb is not the past but a form that indicates a specific point in time, past, present, or future.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- (WW) This helping verb "be" seems to indicate that the verb is passive but it isn't. It is a verb from that indicates the subject is acting on itself.  Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- There is no verb "to be" here in the Greek. However, when nouns, pronouns or adjectives appear in the form of a subject without a verb, the verb "to be" can be assumed.

is -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb, which is expressed here as an adjective.

is -- There is no verb "is" in the Greek source. It is implied by the equating of "workman" with "worthy" both in the Greek form of subjects.

should -- This helping verb in English comes from the form of the Greek verb that indicates a possibility. We would usually say "might" or "should" in English.

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb ut a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

let -- This "let" is the helping verb used to translate the Greek form of the third-person command. In English all commands are in the second-person. This form is used as something like our word "must."

untranslated "for"  -- (MW) The verb is the Greek middle voice that indicates that subjects act "for" or "on" themselves.  Some English transitive verbs require a reflexive pronoun ("itself", "themselves" etc.) after the verb to capture this meaning.

know -- (HW) The word translated as "know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the phrase "I see" to mean "I know" in English. However, though "know" works, not using it primary meaning hides the wordplay with the different word meaning "see" that starts the verse.

VERB PREFIXES

from -- This is from the prefix that means "from"of the previous verb.

after -- (WW) This prep/adverb is from the verb's prefix but the prefix means "from" not "after."

ADDED WORDS

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

things -- This "things"  is from the plural, neutral form of the previous adjective.

man -- This "man" is from the masculine, singular form of the previous word.

and -- These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession. However, it it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

The apostrophe "s" comes from the word's genitive form indicating possession.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context. The case can indicate a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "about" (or "for" or "against") indicating interest, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of affect. -

ISSUES

-- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "also" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

-- (IW) There is  nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action competed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future.

will -- (WW) This helping  verb indicates that the verb is the future tense, but it isn't. It is in the form of possibility so it needs a "should" or "might."

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb ut a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

Verb Number

Greek verb number agrees with the grammatical number of the subject. Some nouns may describe a collective, but if they in a singular form grammatically, the verb is singular. The exception is that neutral plural subjects often (but not always) take singular verbs. As in English, multiple nouns (compound subjects) take a plural verb. If one of the subjects is the first person, the verb is first-person. If one of the subjects is second-person, the verb is second-person. It is rare that a compound subject will be handled as a single unit  like "the heaven and earth" taking a singular verb. However, in poetic use, a multiple nouns in a compound subject take a singular verb when the verb primarily goes with the nearest or most important subject in the compound. A singular verb also appears when the compound subject presents what is clearly one concept.

Dative Case

The dative case has several uses in ancient Greek 1) the indirect object of an action ("Matthew gave his Gospel...to all.") 2) the instrumental dative ("Matthew wrote...with a pen.") 3) the location (in time or place) dative (...in Judea.") 4) to declare a purpose (]..as a testimony"), 5) a benefit ( "...for our benefit"); 6) possession ("...of his own") 7) an agent ("...by himself") and 8) a comparison ("...as the longest") 9) area of affect ("in the sphere of men") -- The form of this word requires that addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect.

Genitive Case

The genitive is always used with some prepositions and verbs, but it is also used for many other things including 1) the attribute genitive (functioning as an adjective), 2) the possessive genitive ("belonging to"), 3) the partitive genitive ("which is part of"), 4) the apposition genitive (same thing as head noun, i.e. "which is"), 5) the descriptive genitive ("described by'), 6) the genitive of comparison ("than" when used with "more", "less," etc.), 7) subjective genitive ("or") with participle ("coming of the son" becomes "the son comes" , 8) objective (‘for’, ‘about’, ‘concerning’, ‘toward’ or ‘against’) only with transitive noun ("blasphemy of the spirit" to "blasphemy against the spirit"), 9) absolute: a participle and noun at the beginning of a sentence ("while") 8) of time ("during", "within") of a word indicating time. -- The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

Objects of Prepositions

Various Greek prepositions (words like "into," "after," "from," etc.) may take objects of a specific case (genitive, dative, and accusative) only. However, several important ones take objects in different cases The meaning of the preposition phrase changes with the form of the object. (See this article for more detail.) Whether the preposition takes a single case or several, below are the general sense of how the Greek works.

  • A genitive object means movement away from something or a position away from something else. The time sense of a genitive object is that the event occurred within a specified time.
  • A dative object implies no movement, but in a fixed position. Event occur at a specified time or while an action was being performed.
  • An accusative object indicates movement towards something or a position reached as a result of that movement. Event may show the amount of time

The Middle and Passive

The Middle voice indicates that someone is acting on themselves or for their own benefit or by themselves. "He washed himself." There are several forms. See this article.

The Middle Passive voice is a verb form that can be either the middle voice or a passive voice. In transitive verbs, it acts as a passive: "he is washed" but for non-transitive verbs, it is acts as the middle voice "he rested for his benefit" or "he rested himself".

  1. Reflexive: "I wash (myself)". This reflexive sense could also carry a sense of benefaction for the subject, as in the sentence "I sacrificed a goat (for my own benefit)."
  2. Reciprocal: "to fight" (with active) vs. "to fight each other" (with mp).
  3. Autocausative: describes situations where the subject causes itself to change state.
  4. State of Being. With verbs relating to standing, sitting, reclining, being afraid, being ashamed, and being pleased, etc.
  5. Intensive: "to be a citizen" (with active) vs. "to do the duties of being a citizen" (with middle).
  6. In deponent verbs that have not active form, for example, "to follow".
  7. Combined with the subjunctive to form the future tense of the verb "to be" in Classical Greek.

Optative Mood

Expresses as wish "If only..." or "Would that..." or a potential of future possibility "I would be happy to dine with you." Largely died out in the koine, but survives in some phrases.

If/Then Statements (Conditional Sentences)

General Conditionals ('if anytime X, then always Y) Repetitive nature

  • Present general ("'If it rains, the streets get wet.'")  IF: eãn + subj. THEN: present indicative
  • Past general ('If  he commanded, they would always act") IF: ei + opt. THEN: imperfect indicative (sometimes with ên)

Specific Conditional ('if X happens, then Y')

  • Neutral ('If X is indeed true, then Y.') IF: ei + any indicative THEN: any indicative
  • Contrary-to-fact ('If pigs had wings, they could fly.') IF: ei + indicative II THEN: indicative II + an
  • Future Probable ('If I find out, I'll let you know.') IF: eãn + subj. THEN:  future indicative/imperative/other 
  • Future Possible ('Should X happen, then Y would.') IF: ei + opt. THEN: optative + an