Luk 6:22 Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you,

KJV Verse: 

Luk 6:22 Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Lucky are you when they might hate you, the people, and when they might cut you off and they might criticize and toss out that name of yours as worthless for the sake of the child of the man. 

Hidden Meaning: 

The general sense here is much more light-hearted than the English translation. Specific words, such as "hate" and "evil" are not as strong in Greek, a least not as Christ uses them. A specific reference to tossing out the garbage is completely lost in translation. 

This verse is very different than the verse in Matthew (Mat 5:11) that is its closest parallel. This is the best evidence that Christ said similar things in very different ways on different occasions. Of course, in this case, Luke describes a very different setting than that of the Sermon on the Mount, so the linguistic content just proves the point. The difference in the previous verse  (Luk 6:21) and its Matthew parallel (Mat 5:6) could be explained by missing parts in one version or the other, but this verse is only similar to its closest parallel in the use of a couple of words.

All the verbs in this verse appear to be the future tense ("shall hate", etc.) but they are not. They are in a form that indicates something that "might" happen ("might hate"). 

 The "are you" verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. This verb did not appear in the previous verse, though it was added. It shares this explicit verb with Mat 5:11

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

The Greek word for "man" also means "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, as it is here, it means "people" and "peoples". Since it has an article, "the people". 

The Greek verb translated as "hate" means "to hate" and in passive, "to be hated." Unlike the English concept, this is more of an expression of dislike rather than a passionate emotion. Article on Greek terms used for hate and love. This verb comes before the word for "men". 

The "you" here is plural, indicating all Christ's listeners.

The "they shall separate...from their company" is a Greek verb which means "to mark off boundaries", "to determine," and "to separate" in the sense of "distinguish" as well as "to banish." In English, we use "cut off" to express this idea.

 The Greek verb translated as "reproach" means "to chide" and it is translated elsewhere in the Gospels as "upbraid" and "revile".  We would say "criticize." Christ only uses it here and in the parallel verse in Mat 5:11.

"Cast out" is a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. Christ often uses it as a term to describe tossing out the garbage, which is very much the image here. It has a certain light-heartedness like our word "toss". 

The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply means a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the things itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

The word translated as "as" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how", "when", "where", "just as", "like," and related words.

The word translated as "evil" means "second-rate" or "worthless."  This article explores it meaning in more detail. It is an adjective, but when used as a noun, therefore, "what is worthless." Here the image is "toss out like garbage". 

The word translated as "sake" means "on account of", "because," and "in consequence of." It is a preposition that comes before the "son of man". 

The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the offspring of humanity." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

 

Wordplay: 

The "cast out your name as evil" phrase more accurately translates to "tossing out your name as worthless" in the sense of tossing out the garbage. 

Vocabulary: 

μακάριοί (adj pl masc nom) "Blessed" is from makarios which means "blessed", "prosperous", "happy", "fortunate," and "blissful."

ἐστε (verb 2nd pl pres ind act ) "Are you" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

ὅταν (conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)." 

 μισήσωσιν (verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Hate" is miseo, which means "to hate" and in passive, "to be hated." 

ὑμᾶς (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

οἱ ἄνθρωποι, (noun pl masc nom) "Men" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -

καὶ "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ὅταν (conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)." -- The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

ἀφορίσωσιν (verb 3rd pl aor subj act ) "They shall separate...from their company" is from aphorizo which means "to mark off boundaries", "to separate", "distinguish", "bring to an end," "finish," "grant as a special gift", "banish", "set apart for rejection," and "distinguish."

ὑμᾶς  (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The "you" here is plural, indicating all Christ's listeners.

καὶ "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also."

ὀνειδίσωσιν [uncommon] (verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Shall reproach" is from oneidizo, which means "to cast in [one's teeth]", "to make a reproach", "to reproach," "to upbraid," and "to chide." -

καὶ "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also."

ἐκβάλωσιν (verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Cast out" is ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter." --

τὸ ὄνομα (noun sg neut nom) "Name" is onoma, which means "name." It means both the reputation of "fame," and "a name and nothing else," as opposed to a real person. Acting in someone's name means to act on their behalf, as their representative.

ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) "Your" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -- The word translated as "your" is plural addressing all of Christ's listeners.

ὡς (adv/conj) "As" is hos, an adverb which means to "thus", "as", "how", "when", "where", "like", "just as", "so far as", "as much as can be", "that", "in order that", "nearly (with numbers)," and "know that."

πονηρὸν (adj sg neut nom/acc) "Evil" is poneros, which means "burdened by toil", "useless," and "worthless." In a moral sense, it means "worthless", "base," and "cowardly." 

ἕνεκα (prep) "For" is heneka, which means "on account of", "as far as regards", "in consequence of," and "because." --

τοῦ υἱοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου: (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

Related Verses: 

Sep 21 2017