Luk 6:25 Woe unto you that are full!

KJV Verse: 

Luk 6:25 Woe unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger. Woe unto you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Too bad to you, those having stuffed yourselves now, because you all might/shall be starved. 

Too bad those who are laughing now, because you all might/shall lament and perhaps weep. 

Hidden Meaning: 

There is a lot in this verse that is lost in translation. Again, the effect is primarily humorous and it becomes even more so given that it comments on people laughing. It is not quite the other side of Luk 6:21 nor Mat 5:4 though it shares some vocabulary. This verse also echoes certain ideas in Jhn 16:20 where the topic is specifically Christ's death. 

"Woe" is an exclamation of grief, meaning "woe" or "alas." However, Christ seems to use it humorously. Every verse in which it appears have the hallmarks of Christ's humor. Today we would say "so sad [for you]" or "boo-hoo to you." The word is very like the Jewish, "oy veh" which can be used to express sorry but with is more commonly used cynically. More about this phrase in this article on Christ's humor, under the subtitle, "exaggeration."

The "unto you" is plural, address many of Christ's listeners. It is not repeated in the second half of the verse, though it is shown that way in translation. 

The Greek verse translated as "that are full" is means to "fill quite full",  "fill full of" a thing, and, in the passive, "to be satiated." This is not the word translated as "shall be filled" in Luk 6:21 or Mat 5:6. That word is used as a punchline, having the sense of "get your fill". This word has the sense of being stuffed. This is the only time Christ uses it. The tense of the verb is something completed in the past, not the present tense, as shown, and the form is something people do to themselves, "having stuffed themselves". 

The word for "shall hunger" is the verb for "to hunger" as in needing food and, like the English word, it is a metaphor for any craving. It is in a form that could be the future tense or the subjunctive mood. This means either "will starve" or "might starve". This is the same word as used in Luk 6:21

The "woe to you" is the same as above.

There is no "unto you" in this verse. 

The verb translated as "that laugh" means "to laugh" but it covers not just happy laughter. It includes laughing at people and deriding them. This is also the same word as used in Luk 6:21. Its use is entertaining because so much of what Christ said was designed to make people hearing him laugh. Some of the humor was even used to deride others in a light-hearted way. Unlike the previous "that are full", this tense is present, "are laughing". This may well indicate that Christ's audience was laughing as he said this. 

In some ways, this following verbs may be a prediction of how his listeners, enjoying him now, will feel when he is killed. The language is similar to Jhn 16:20, though a different word is translated as "lament" in that verse. 

The Greek verb translated as "shall mourn" is meaning "to wail" and "to lament." It is used in Mat 5:4. The form can either be the future tense ("shall wail") or the subjunctive mood ("might wail"). 

The verb translated as "weep" means "to weep", "to lament," and "to cry". This verse is clearly in the subjunctive mood, "might weep". After a series of verbs that would probably be heard as the future tense, this verb would either change the listeners thinking about what had gone before as work as a punchline: "shall mourn" and "might cry". Especially poignant if Christ is referring to his own death. 

Wordplay: 

Vocabulary: 

οὐαὶ (exclam) "Woe" is ouai, which is an exclamation of pain or anger meaning "woe" or "alas" but it can be used sarcastically. 

ὑμῖν, (pron 2nd pl dat) "To you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι [uncommon](part pl perf mp masc nom/voc) "That are full" is from empiplemi, which means to "fill quite full",  "fill full of" a thing, and, in the passive, "to be satiated." 

νῦν, (adv) "Now" is nyn (nun), which means "now", "at the present moment", "at the present time", "just now", "presently," and "as it is."

ὅτι (adv/conj) "For" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

πεινάσετε. (verb 2nd pl fut ind act or verb 2nd pl aor subj act) "You shall hunger"  is peinoa, which means "to be hungry", "crave after," or "to be starved," and it is a metaphor for desire and cravings.

οὐαί, (exclam) "Woe" is ouai, which is an exclamation of pain or anger meaning "woe" or "alas" but it can be used sarcastically. 

οἱ γελῶντες  (part pl pres act masc nom/voc) "That laugh" is from gelao, which means to "laugh", "laugh at", and "deride".

νῦν, (adv) "Now" is nyn (nun), which means "now", "at the present moment", "at the present time", "just now", "presently," and "as it is."

ὅτι (adv/conj) "For" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

πενθήσετε (verb 2nd pl fut ind act or verb 2nd pl aor subj act) "Those who mourn" is from pentheo, which means "to bewail", "to mourn", "to go into mourning," and "to lament."

καὶ "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." When used in writing, it creates complex sentences, but when spoken, it makes a good pausing point so that an important or humorous word can follow.

κλαύσετε. (verb 2nd pl aor subj act)"Are ye that weep" is from klaiowhich means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

Related Verses: 

Sep 26 2017