Luk 8:13 They on the rock 

KJV Verse: 

Luk 8:13 They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in time of temptation fall away.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

These, however, upon the rock, these, while they might hear with delight, welcome the idea, also, these don't have root, these for a season believe and in a season of trial shall desert.

Hidden Meaning: 

This verse combines the ideas that are expressed in two verses of both Matthew (Matthew 13:20Matthew 13:21) and Mark (Mar 4:16Mar 4:17). An important concept in Matthew and Mark, the suddenness of the joy, it left out here, but it is replaced by a play on the idea of time. Luke also manages to add an uncommon word for Christ to use to mean "receive" where both Matthew and Mark use the common word, which is part of a play on words in that verse. 

The word translated as "they" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

An untranslated Greek word here in the verse. It is usually translated as "but" and joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The word translated as "on" means "against", "before", "during", "by" or "on."

The Greek word translated as "the rock" means "rock" and "stone". It also can mean a "high cliff". 

There is no verb translated as  "are" in the Greek text. 

The word translated as "they, which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

"They hear" is translated from a Greek word that has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.

"Receive" is a word, which, when applied to people as it does here, means "to welcome", "to grant access," or "to receive with hospitality". In Matthew and Mark, the word used also has the sense of "getting", which had the same sense in ancient Greek of "understanding" as in "getting a joke". This word has more the idea of "welcoming" and idea rather than getting it. 

"The word" is translated from a Greek word that means "calculation," or "reasoning." It is the source of our word "logic" and is the root word for all the English words that end in "-ology." Most biblical translations translated it as "word" for somewhat poetic reasons. More about this word in this article. In English, we would say "idea" to describe it. 

"With" is the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". 

"Joy" is from a worth that means "joy" and "delight." More about Christ's use of emotions in this article.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

"These" is translated from a Greek word that means "this", "that", "the nearer."

The word translated as "have" means "to possess" or "to keep" but it isn't used in the same way as a "helper" verb that the English "have" is.

The Greek word translated as "no" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

"Root" is from the Greek word for a plant's "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause.

The word translated as "for" means "towards", "by reason of (for)," and "against." Relating to time, it means "for" or "at." 

"Awhile" is a noun that means "due measure", "season", "opportunity", "time," and "profit."

The Greek word translated as "believe" does not apply to religious belief as much as it does trusting in other people, especially their word. Christ usually uses it in contexts, as the one here, that apply to trusting words. The negation of "belief" with the objective, instead of subjective, negative, equates trust with a fact.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

"Time" is a noun that means "due measure", "season", "opportunity", "time," and "profit."

The Greek word translated as "of temptation" doesn't primarily means that. It means a "trial" as in a "worry." Christ doesn't use this term but another Greek word to refer to court trials. It could mean a "trial" as a "test." Again, this is an uncommon word in Christ's teaching.

"Fall away" is a verb that means "shall be absent", "shall be away from", and "shall desert".  It is an uncommon verb for Christ to use. He commonly uses other common words to say "fall away" or "depart". 

Wordplay: 

The contrast of "for a time" and "in a time" to create a sense of before and after. 

Vocabulary: 

οἱ (pron pl masc nom)  "They" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

δὲ (conj/adv) Untranslated is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). -

ἐπὶ (prep) "On" is epi, which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "during", and "against."

τῆς πέτρας (noun sg fem gen) "A rock" is from petra, which means "rock", "boulder," and "stone" as a building material. It has the specific meaning of "rocky cliffs" of "ledges" over the sea and a "rocky peak" or "ridge."​

οἳ (pron pl masc nom) "Are they, which" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

ἀκούσωσιν (verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Ye hear" is akouo, which means "hear of", "hear tell of", "what one actually hears", "know by hearsay", "listen to", "give ear to", "hear and understand," and "understand."

μετὰ (prep) "With" is meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward."

χαρᾶς (noun sg fem gen) "Joy" is from chara (chara), which means "joy" and "delight."

δέχονται (verb 3rd pl pres ind mp) "Receive" is dechomai, which means "welcome", "accept," and "entertain" when applied to people and "take", "accept," and "receive" when applied to things. 

τὸν λόγον, (noun sg masc acc) "Word" is logos, which means "word", "computation", "relation", "explanation", "law", "rule of conduct", "continuous statement", "tradition", "discussion," "reckoning," and "value."

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οὗτοι (adj pl masc nom) "These" is houtos, which as an adjective means "this", "that", "the nearer." As an adverb, it means "in this way", "therefore", "so much", "to such an extent," and "that is why." -

ῥίζαν (noun sg fem acc) "Root" is rhiza, which means "root" and anything that springs from a root. It includes the roots of hairs, feathers, and teeth. It is also a metaphor for roots as a foundation, such as "the roots of the earth."

οὐκ (partic) "No" is ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔχουσιν, (verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Have" is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

οἳ (pron pl masc nom)  "Which" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

πρὸς (prep) "For" is pros, which means "on the side of", "in the direction of", "from (place)", "towards" "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "in the name of", "near" (a time),  "at" (a time), "for" (a time), "by reason of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before."

καιρὸν (noun sg masc acc) "Awhile" is kairos, which means "due measure", "proportion", "fitness", "exact time", "season", "opportunity", "time", "critical times", "advantage," and "profit."

πιστεύουσιν (verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Believe" is pisteuo, which means "to trust, put faith in, or rely on a person", "to believe in someone's words", "to comply", "to feel confident in a thing," and "to entrust in a thing."

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

καιρῷ (noun sg masc dat) "Time" is kairos, which means "due measure", "proportion", "fitness", "exact time", "season", "opportunity", "time", "critical times", "advantage," and "profit." -- "The time" is a noun that means "due measure", "season", "opportunity", "time," and "profit."

πειρασμοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "Of temptation" is peirasmos, which means a "trial", "worry," and only by extension "temptation." 

ἀφίστανται. [uncommon](verb 3rd pl pres ind mp causal pres) "Fall away" is from aphistemiwhich means "shall be absent", "shall be away from", and "shall desert". 

Related Verses: 

Nov 25 2017