Luke 11:4 And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one

KJV Verse: 

Luke 11:4 And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

And let go for us these mistakes of ours also because we ourselves let go of everyone owing to us. Also you don't want to bring us into a testing. 

Hidden Meaning: 

This verse condenses and combines the versions in Matthew (Matthew 6:12Matthew 6:13). It also changes the complementary idea in Matthew of letting go of our debts in exchange for letting go our debts forgive for a broader idea, that of having our mistakes let go. 

The conjunction translated as "and" begins the sentence. It can also mean "also."

The word translated as "forgive" primarily means "to let go", "to let drop", "to leave alone", or "to send away." This same word is usually translated as "leave", "forgive", "suffer," and "let" in the New Testament. It is in the second person imperative, which can be a command or a request in Greek. More about this word in this article.

The word translated as "us" is the first person plural pronoun. It is in a form that is not a direct object. It is the "debt" that is dropped, not "us". Its form is used as an indirect object, but in Greek this can indicate the one receiving a benefit from an action. In English, we would say that something is done "for us" to give the pronoun this sense.

The word translated as "sin" is a form of a word that means "to fail in one's purpose", "to neglect," and "to be deprived of." It has no sense of doing malicious evil in Greek. The best English translation is "mistakes" or "failures" rather than what we commonly think of as the evils of "sin." See this article for more information and context.

The Greek word usually translated as "and" appears here but it untranslated in the KJV. Though it can also mean "also", Christ often uses it to mean "also" when it is not used as a conjunction.

The word translated as "we" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English, but it has a few shades of meaning our pronouns do not have. Since it is part of the verb (or should be), its use emphasizes the "we" are we would say "we ourselves". 

The word translated as "forgive" means "to let go" or "to let drop", or "to leave alone". It is the same word used at the beginning of the verse. This word seems to be misspelled in the Greek source that I use. 

The word translated as "every one" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

"That is indebted" is a verb in the form of an adjective that means "to owe", "to have to pay," and "to account for", so "owing". 

"To us" is the first person plural pronoun, "we", "us" as an indirect object.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The word translated as "lead" means "bring into" or "carry in." From these meanings, we get secondary meanings such as "introduce" and "to propose". Unlike many of the other verbs in the Lord's Prayer, it isn't in the form of a command, though it is translated that way in the KJV to match the form of the other verbs in the prayer. Its form is of something that "might" happen. It is a simple statement, not a request, about what the Father doesn't want to happen but the entire sentence comes across as a shy suggestion.

Us" is the 1st person, plural, accusative pronoun.

The negative "not" used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

The word translated as "into" means "into" when it refers to a place but "up to" referring to time. However, here it seems to be referring to a limit, where the sense is "as far as".

The Greek word translated as "temptation" doesn't primarily means that. It means a "trial" as in a "worry" or "testing". The verb form means "to try" or "to test" something. The idea of "temptation" comes from the sense of a trial as testing but, in English, a "temptation" means something desirable. The Greek word has none of this meaning. Christ doesn't use this term but another Greek word to refer to court trials. Again, this is an uncommon word in Christ's teaching. In my search of the Greek, it only shows up in the NT and Christian writings afterward. This means that thw word may have been coined the word from the verb form.

Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἄφες (2nd sg aor imperat act) "Forgive" is from aphiemi, which means "to let fall", "to send away", "to discharge", "to give up", "hand over", "to let loose", "to get rid of", "to leave alone", "to pass by", "to permit," and "to send forth from oneself."

ἡμῖν (pron 1st pl masc/fem dat) "Us" is from hemin, which is the first person plural dative pronoun, "to us."

τὰς ἁμαρτίας (noun pl fem acc) "Sins" is hamartia, which means "to miss the mark", "failure", "fault," and "error." Only in religious uses does it become "guilt" and "sin." 

ἡμῶν, (pron 1st pl gen) "Our" is from hemon, which is the plural possessive (genitive) form of the first personal pronoun.

καὶ (conj) "Also" s kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

γὰρ (partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what." --The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why."  To prevent a run-on sentence, it can be translated as "this is why" or "this is because..." to start a new sentence.

αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom) "We" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." 

ἀφίομεν (1st pl aor ind act???) "Forgive" is from aphiemi, which means "to let fall", "to send away", "to discharge", "to give up", "hand over", "to let loose", "to get rid of", "to leave alone", "to pass by", "to permit," and "to send forth from oneself."

παντὶ (adj sg masc dat) "Every one" is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." --

ὀφείλοντι  (part sg pres act masc dat) "that is indebted" is from opheilo, which means "to owe", "to have to pay," "to be bound", "to be obliged (to do)" and "to account for."

ἡμῖν: (pron 1st pl masc dat) "To us" is from hemeis, the first person plural pronoun, "we", "us".

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

μὴ (partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. --

εἰσενέγκῃς  [uncommon](2nd sg aor subj act) "Lead" is from eisphero, which means "to carry in", "to bring in," "to contribute", "to bring into", "to introduce", "to bring forward", "to propose", "to carry with one", "to bring with," "to draw a break", "to drink [water]", "to sweep along [as a river]," and "to nominate."

ἡμᾶς (pron 1st pl masc/fem acc ) "Us" is from humas, which is the 1st person, plural, accusative pronoun.

εἰς (prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

πειρασμόν.  [uncommon](noun sg masc acc) "Temptation" is from peirasmos, which means a "trial", "worry," "an experiment", "an attempt" and "a trial." The root word is a verb peirazowhich means "make a proof", "to try" "to test a person", and "to attempt".

Related Verses: 

Feb 7 2018