Luke 14:10 But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room;

KJV Verse: 

Luke 14:10 But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

But when you might be invited, being brought, drop down into the furthest place where when he might show up, the one having invited you, he will say to you, "Friend, ascend higher. Then it will be for you an honor in front of all the ones with you. 

Hidden Meaning: 

First thing hidden here is that this is addressed to a single person. Most of Jesus statements use the plural "you" but here it is the singular. This verse includes three unique words used nowhere else, even though they are translated to look like other words. There are also two uncommon words, one a play on words. 

The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

The term translated as "are bidden" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name," but it does not as clearly mean "to address." Here it clearly means "invite". 

The Greek verb translated as "Go" means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." It is not a command or anything like translated. It is passive and in the form of an adjective "being brought". The sense is being brought into the wedding.

There is no "and" nor is it needed because there is only one active verb. 

The active verb translated as "sit down" means to "fall back", "give ground", "lifeless", of style, of a plan "to be given up",  and "recline" at meals. It is a play on words,  meaning both "recline" at the meal and "retreat".  While it is uncommon for Jesus to use this word, it is always used in the Gospels to mean reclining at meals.

The word translated as "in" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

"Lowest" is from an adjective that, in space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." If the context is the previous verse, it can refer to distance or people so it means "furthest" or "meanest". However, clearly, its use is intended for a double meaning, meaning both. KJV English has a double meaning as well, but it is not quite the same. 

"Room" is translated from a Greek word that means "place", "position," and "topic." this is a fairly uncommon word for Christ to use.

The word translated as "that" is not the simple demonstrative pronoun, but a word that means "there", "where," and "in order that."

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

The term translated as "he that bade" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name," but it does not as clearly mean "to address."

The "thee" here is singular. This is uncommon for Christ when he is teaching, meaning that the line was likely addressed to an individual instead of all his listeners. 

The word translated as "cometh" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. 

"He may say" is from the Greek verb that means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming. It is not the form of possibility ("may"), but the future tense, "will say."

The word for "unto thee" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. 

 The term translated as "a friend" is one of three or four words in Greek for "love". This is usually described as "brotherly love". It is in the form of an word used in address.

"Go up" is not a common word translated as "go" like the one above, but a word used by Jesus uniquely here. It means to "go up," "mount besides", "climb", and "ascend".  It is a command. 

"Higher" is another word used uniquely here. It  means "higher", "upper", "above" and "a higher place". 

The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then". 

The verb "shall have" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek, not the verb "have". It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, here "it shall be". 

The word for "thou" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. It is not the subject of have, but the object there being an honor, "an honor for you". 

The Greek noun translated as "worship" is usually translated as "glory" in the Bible. Another word meaning "to bow down" is usually translated as "worship". This word means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "repute," and "popular repute." Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible. The words "recognition", "reputation", and "an honor" come closest to capturing the way Christ uses the word.

The Greek term translated as "in the presence" is uncommon and not used outside of Luke except once in John. It means "in front of". 

An untranslated word appears here that means "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." 

Another unique word for Jesus to use is translated as "of them that sit at meat". It  means simply "recline together".

The word for "with thee" is the indirect object form of the pronoun. This is its third appears. Once again, this is sigular, suggesting that this was addressed to a single person. 

 

 

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "sit down" is a play on words, meaning both "recline" at the mean and "retreat". 

Vocabulary: 

ἀλλ᾽ (adv) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." 

ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)." 

κληθῇς (verb 2nd sg aor subj pass contr) "Are bidden" is kaleo, which means "call", "summon", "invite", "invoke", "call by name," and "demand." --

πορευθεὶς (part sg aor pass masc nom) "Go" is poreuomai (poreuô) which means "make to go", "carry", "convey", "bring", "go", "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT. -- The Greek verb translated as "go" isn't the most common verb translated as "go" in the NT but it is often translated that way. This word means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Since it is in a form that acts on itself, the sense is "take yourselves".

ἀνάπεσε [uncommon](verb 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Sit down" is anapipto, which means to "fall back", "give ground", "lifeless", of style, of a plan "to be given up",  and "recline" at meals, 

εἰς (prep) "In" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." 

τὸν ἔσχατον (adj sg masc acc) "The lowest" is eschatos. In space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." -- 

τόπον, (noun sg masc acc) "Room" is from topos, which means "place", "region", "position", "part [of the body]", "district", "room," and "topic." It is also a metaphor for "opening", "occasion," and "opportunity."  

ἵνα (adv/conj) "That" is hina, which means "in that place", "there", "where", "when", "that", "in order that", "when," and "because."

ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)." 

ἔλθῃ (verb 3rd sg aor subj act ) "Cometh" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. --

κεκληκώς (part sg perf act masc nom) "He that bade" is kaleo, which means "call", "summon", "invite", "invoke", "call by name," and "demand." -- The term translated as "call" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name," but it does not as clearly mean "to address."

σε (pron 2nd sg acc) "Thee" is from se, the second person singular accusative pronoun.

ἐρεῖ (verb 3rd sg fut ind act ) "He may say" is eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer."

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) "Unto thee" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". 

Φίλε, (adj sg masc ) "Friend" is from philos, which as an adjective means "loved", "beloved", "dear", "kith and kin", "nearest and dearest", "friends," and (of things) "welcome" and "pleasant." --

προσανάβηθι [unique] (verb 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Go up" is prosanabaino, which means to "go up," "mount besides", "climb", and "ascend". 

ἀνώτερον: [unique] (adj sg masc acc) "Higher" is anoteros, which means "higher", "upper", "above" and "a higher place". 

τότε (adv) "Then" is tote, which means "at that time" and "then." 

ἔσται (verb 3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall have" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") -

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) "Thou" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you". -- 

δόξα (noun sg fem nom ) "Worship" is doxa, which means "expectation", "notion", "opinion", "repute," and "popular repute." Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are applied to external appearances but are found primarily in translating the Bible. The words "recognition" and "reputation" come closest to capturing the way Christ uses the word, especially if we consider how he uses the verb form.

ἐνώπιον [uncommon](prep) "In the presence" is from enopionwhich means " facing" and "to the front".  -

πάντων (adj pl masc gen) Untranslated is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether."

τῶν συνανακειμένων [unique](part pl pres mp masc gen) "Of them that sit at meat" is synanakeimaiwhich means "recline together".

σοι.  (pron 2nd sg dat) "With thee" is soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you".

Jun 15 2018