Luke 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

In order that you might be eating and drinking at that table of mine in that realm of mine and might sit on judge's seats, these twelve branches judging of Israel.

Hidden Meaning: 

Can you spot the problem with KJV? Jesus seems to say that they will sit on twelve thrones, but he has already identified one of them as a traitor. Does this make sense? No, but Jesus doesn't say that exactly. Note, Jesus makes a similar statement in Matthew 19:28, before he comes to Jersusale, where he phrases things differently.

The word translated as "that" is not the simple demonstrative pronoun, but a word that means "there", "where," and "in order that."

The word translated as "ye may eat" means "eat" but it also means "fret," as we say "something is eating me up," which seems to go better with the "worry" concept earlier. The form is one of possibility. Jesus is not saying that they all will eat, using the future tense but that they "might" or "may" using the form of possibility.  The tense is the present, "might be eating". So, they might be doing this now. After all, they are currently eating.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The word "drink" is the Greek for meaning to "drink". It also has a double meaning. "To drink" also means "to celebrate." Again, the form is one of possibility in the present, "might be drinking".

The word translated as "at" means "on", "over", "upon", "at", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

"My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

"Table" is an uncommon noun for Jesus to use. It means "table", "dining-table", "eating-table", "money changer's table", and "grinding stone". 

The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among." 

"My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

"Sit" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint",  and "to establish". The form is of possibility, but it is not the present tense, but the tense indicating something that might happen at some time.  The change in tense is clearly intentional, indicating the future.

The word translated as "on" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."  This is the same preposition translated as "at" above.

"Thrones" is a Greek word that means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench."  Jesus usually used it to refer to a judges bench, as he does here.  In Matthew, Jesus mentions twelve thrones, which he doesn't do here.

"Judging" is from a verb that which means "separate", "distinguish", "pick out", "choose," 'decide", "decide in favor of", "determine," and "form a judgment."  Unlike most words, which Christ uses specifically, he uses this word in a variety of senses simply because no English word corresponds to it precisely. He can mean "judge", "criticize", "decide", "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context.  He the use of the word meaning a "judge's bench" makes the meaning clearly "judging" since the form is an adjective.  It follows the word "tribes" in the Greek.

The word translated as "goods" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."  See this article for more. 

"Twelve" is the Greek numeral "twelve."

"Tribes" is from the noun that means "a race", "a tribe", "people with ties of descent", "representatives of a tribe," and "the military contingent of a tribe."

The word translated as "of" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and whose form signals the form of the noun.  See this article for more. 

"Israel" is the Hebrew word.

 

Wordplay: 

Vocabulary: 

ἵνα (adv/conj) "That" is hina, which means "in that place", "there", "where", "when", "that", "in order that", "when," and "because." -- The word translated as "that" is not the simple demonstrative pronoun, but a word that means "there", "where," and "in order that."

ἔσθητε ( verb 2nd pl pres subj act) "Ye may eat" is esthiô (esthio), which means "to eat", "devour", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

πίνητε ( verb 2nd pl pres subj act ) "Ye shall drink" is pinô (pino), which means "to drink", "to celebrate," and "soak up." --

ἐπὶ (prep) "At" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against." --

τῆς τραπέζης  [uncommon]( noun sg fem gen) "Table" is trapeza which means "table", "dining-table", "eating-table", "money changer's table", and "grinding stone".  --

μου (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." --

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". --

τῇ βασιλείᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "The kingdom" is basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign." --

μου, (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." --

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

καθῆσθε (verb 2nd pl aor subj act) "Sit" is kathizô, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint", "to establish", "to put in a certain condition", "to reside", "to sink down", "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata("down") hedraios ("to settle") . -- 

ἐπὶ (prep) "On" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against." --

θρόνων ( noun pl masc gen ) "Thrones" is thronos, which means "seat", "chair", "seat of state", "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench."

τὰς (article pl fem acc)  Untranslated is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." Here it is separated from its noun by a conjunction. 

δώδεκα (numeral) "Twelve" is from dodeka, which is the number "twelve," and a noun meaning "a group of twelve."

φυλὰς (noun pl fem acc) "Tribes" is from phyle, which means "tribe", "a group related by birth or location", "clan," and, of things, a "class" or "kind."

κρίνοντες ( part pl pres act masc nom ) "Judging" is krino, which primarily means "to separate", "to put asunder," and "to distinguish." It has a lot of other secondary meanings, including "to pick out", "to choose", "to decide" disputes or accounts, "to win" a battle, "to judge" especially in the sense of "estimate", "to expound," or "to interpret" in a particular way. -

τοῦ ( article sg masc gen) "Of" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." Here it is separated from its noun by a conjunction. -

Ἰσραήλ. (Hebrew) "Israel" is from Israel, which means "Israel." -- The word translated as "Israel" comes from the Hebrew, not the Greek.

Related Verses: 

Feb 11 2019