Luke 9:22 The Son of man must suffer many things,

KJV Verse: 

Luke 9:22 The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

It is required of the son of the man to pay a great penalty, not only to be rejected from among the old men and head priests and writers but also to be destroyed and on the third day to be awakened. 

Hidden Meaning: 

Again, Luke is back to using his uncommon words. This verse is a combination of many similar but not identical verses in Matthew and Mark. 

The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the offspring of humanity." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

The "must" is a verb that works differently than the English "must". It means "it is necessary" or "it is required". It proceeds a list of requirements. The "son of man" is not the subject of this verb, but the object, which is an important point. 

The verb translated as "suffer" also means "to be treated so" or "to pay a penalty." Its form is a passive infinitive, "to be treated so" or "to pay a penalty". 

The word translated as "many things" is an adjective that means many in number, great in power or worth, and large in size. "Great" or "many" is its most common translation. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used five times in this verb. It is the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." Since it is used to separate both nouns and verbs in this verse, using the "not only...but also" at least once clarifies the meaning of the verbs. 

Be rejected" is a verb that means specifically "reject on scrutiny", "reject as unfit or unworthy," and "reject for want of qualifications." It is an uncommon verb, user earlier by Jesus only in reciting a bible quote and in a parallel to this verse.  It is also in the form of a passive infinitive, "to be rejected as unfit". 

The word translated as "by" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source. It is not the way Jesus would have referred to people who were the author of an act. There is a specific word from for doing this. The sense here is much more "from among" these people, not "by" them. 

The word translated as "elder" means "old men" but is a comparative like our "elder" or "older". 

The word translated as "chief priests" means "head priests". It uses the same root as words such as "archbishop" or "archenemy". 

The word translated as "scribes" means "writers" and "recorders". These were the religious copyists of the age. "Scribes" is translated from a Greek word describing anyone who used written records in their job, "secretary", "registrar,' and "scholar." However, Jesus used it to name those scholars who specifically studied the Bible and wrote about its meanings. A modern equivalent would be "academics."

"Be slain" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay." The Greek source has the sense of "kill off," that is, destroy in a more thorough way. When we talk about "destroying" someone, we use it to mean destroying their reputation, the strength of their spirit and ideas as well as physically killing them. this is more the sense here. It is again, a passive infinitive, "to be destroyed". 

The word for "be raised " means "awaken" and is the same word Christ uses to describe God raising the dead and false prophets arising. 

The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

Vocabulary: 

Δεῖ (verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Must" is from, dei, which means "needful," and "there is need."

τὸν υἱὸν (noun sg masc acc) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

πολλὰ (adj pl neut nom) "Many" is polus, which means "many (in number)", "great (in size or power or worth)," and "large (of space)." As an adverb, it means "far", "very much", "a great way," and "long."

παθεῖν (verb aor inf act) "Suffer" is from pascho, which means "to have done to one", "to suffer", "to be treated so", "to come to be in a state", "to pay a penalty", "to suffer legal punishment," and "to be ill."

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι [uncommon](verb aor inf pass) "Be rejected" is from apodokimazô, which means specifically "reject on scrutiny", "reject as unfit or unworthy," and "reject for want of qualifications."

ἀπὸ (prep) "of" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

τῶν πρεσβυτέρων [uncommon](adj pl masc gen irreg_comp) "Elders" is from presbyteros, which means "old men", "elder", "old age", "ambassador", in comparative and superlative., of things, "more or most important", "taking precedence". 

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀρχιερέων [uncommon] (noun pl masc gen) "Chief priests" is from archiereus, which means "arch-priest" and "chief priest."

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

γραμματέων (noun pl masc gen) "Scribes" is grammateus, which is generally a "secretary," "registrar", "recorder," and "scholar," but specifically means someone who uses gramma which is Greek for "drawings", "a letter," (as in an alphabet)"diagrams," and "letters" (as in correspondence). 

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποκτανθῆναι (verb aor inf pass) "Be slain" is apokteino, which means "to kill," and "to slay." It combines the word for "to slay" (kteino) with the proposition, apo, indicating separation, meaning "from" or "away from."but it is a stronger form than the normal verb kteino. It is more like our "destroy." 

καὶ (conj) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

τῇ (article sg fem dat) "The" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun but here is separated from it by the number.

τρίτῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Third" is from tritoswhich is the Greek word for "third" meanig both the third in an order and the fraction one third.

ἡμέρᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Day" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)." --

ἐγερθῆναι. (verb aor inf pass) "Arise" is from egeiro, which means "to awaken", "to stir up," and "to rouse."

Related Verses: 

Dec 18 2017