Matthew 13:19 When any one hears the word

KJV Verse: 

Mat 13:19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. this is he which received seed by the way side.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

Of all hearing the ide of the reign and not wanting to put it together, it starts up worthless and snatches away that which had sown itself in his heart. this is the one by the way.

Hidden Meaning: 

A lot is added to the KJV that is not in the source and may be misleading. The KJV translators wanted this verse to conform more closely to Mat 13:4 than it actually does. It is very interesting because the same word is translated as "that which was sown" and "he which received the seed." Earlier, in Mat 13:18 , another form of the same word was translated as "the sower."

There is no Greek source for the "when" that begins this verse. It was added by translators.

The word translated as "any" is one word meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

"One heareth" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding. However, it is in the form of a noun, "the hearer" or "the one that hears."

"The word" is translated from a Greek word that means "explanation" or "calculation." It is the source of our word "logic" and is the root word for all the English words that end in "-ology." Most biblical translations translated it as "word" for somewhat poetic reasons.

The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" seems more appropriate. this is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

The negative "not" used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something or it "doesn't seem" to be done, not that it isn't done. If it wasn't done, the objective negative of fact would be used.

"Understandeth" is from a Greek verb which means "to bring together" or "to set together." It is also a metaphor for "perceive", "hear," and "understand" as we would say that we "put it all together" when figuring something out. It is also in the form of a noun or adjective, "the one understanding".

There is no Greek source for "it" here, but it has been added for clarity.

There is no Greek source for "then" here either. Like the "when" that began this section, it was added by the KJV translators.

The word translated as "cometh" primarily means "to start out." It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being under way."

The word translated as "the wicked" means "second-rate" or "worthless." This article explores it meaning in more detail. It is an adjective, but when used as a noun, therefore, "what is worthless." It is an adjective and is not introduced by an article as is usually the case when an adjective is used as a noun.

"Catches away" is from a Greek verb that means "to snatch away", "to carry off," and "to seize hastily."

"That which was sown" is from the verb meaning "to sow," which itself is a verbal form of the Greek word for "seed." However, here, the verb is in the form of a noun describing something that is sowing itself. In the active form, in Mat 13:18 , this word was translated as "the sower". Here, in this form, it is translated as "that which was sown." This seems an appropriate translated for true passive, which appears later in verse. It is also in the perfect tense, indicating an action that completed itself. "Seeds" are Christ's symbol for knowledge or the beginning of knowledge.

The "heart" is from a word that means the physical heart as well as the seat of emotions. It was used by Christ to mean the seat of the "higher" emotions or desires that motivate people. Symbolically, it connects with the realm of relationships and emotions.

"This" is translated from a Greek word that means "this", "that", "the nearer."

The verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition.

An untranslated article, "the" appears here. It either belongs to the noun at the end of the sentence or is standing alone and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." It could also be a demonstrative pronoun ("this", "that"), that often acts as a pronoun, especially a connective pronoun introducing a dependent clause.

The Greek preposition translated "by," primarily means "besides" and "beyond." It also has a number of specialized meanings.

"The way side" is from a word meaning "the way" or "the road" but which is used symbolically to mean "a way of doing things" or "a philosophy of life." In Acts, followers of Jesus are described as those "belonging to the way". 

"He which received seed" is from the verb meaning "to sow," which itself is a verbal form of the Greek word for "seed." However, here, the verb is in the form of a noun describing something that is sown at sometime, "that which is sown". "Seeds" are Christ's symbol for knowledge or the beginning of knowledge.

Wordplay: 

The same word meaning "sowing" appears in a form indicating something that has finished sowing itself and again in the form of something that is sown at some time. 

Vocabulary: 

Παντὸς (adj sg masc gen) "Any" is from pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether."

ἀκούοντος (part sg pres act masc gen) "One heareth" is from akouo, which means "hear of", "hear tell of", "what one actually hears", "know by hearsay", "listen to", "give ear to", "hear and understand," and "understand." --

τὸν λόγον (noun sg masc acc) "The word" is from logos, which means "computation", "relation", "explanation", "law", "rule of conduct", "continuous statement", "tradition, ""word, ""discussion, ""reckoning," and "value."

τῆς βασιλείας (noun sg fem gen) "The kingdom" is from basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

μὴ (partic) "Not" is from me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

συνιέντος, (part sg pres act masc gen) "Understandeth" is from suniêmi (syniemi) which means "to bring together" or "to set together." It is also a metaphor for "perceive", "hear," and "understand" as we would say that we "put it all together" when figuring something out.

ἔρχεται (verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Cometh" is from erchomai, which means "to start, ""to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. --

πονηρὸς (adj sg masc nom) "The wicked" is from poneros, which means "burdened by toil", "useless," and "worthless." In a moral sense, it means "worthless", "base," and "cowardly."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

ἁρπάζει (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Catches away" is from harpazo which means which means "to snatch away", "to carry off", "to be a robber", "to seize hastily", "to grasp with the senses", "to captivate", "to ravish," and "to plunder."

τὸ ἐσπαρμένον (part sg perf mp masc acc) "That which was sown" is from speirô, which is a verb, not a noun. It means "to sow seed", "to scatter like seed," and "to beget offspring. All of these shades of meaning are at work here.

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ καρδίᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Heart" is from kardia, which means "heart (the physical organ)", "the seat of emotions (especially passion, rage, and anger)", "inclination", "desire, ""purpose", "mind", "the pith (in wood), and "the deep (of the sea)."

αὐτοῦ: (adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

οὗτός (adj sg masc nom) "This" is from houtos, which means "this", "that", "the nearer." As an adverb, it means "in this way", "therefore", "so much", "to such and extent," and "that is why." --

ἐστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

 (article sg masc nom ) Untranslated is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."

παρὰ (prep)  "By" is from para, which means "beside", "from the side of", "from beside,", "from", "issuing from", "near", "by", "with", "along", "past", "beyond", "parallel (geometry)", "like (metaphor)", "a parody of (metaphor)", "precisely at the moment of (time)," and "throughout (time)."

τὴν ὁδὸν (noun sg fem acc) "The way" is from hodos, which means literally "the way" or "the road" but which is used symbolically to mean "a way of doing things" or "a philosophy of life." It is interesting that a term joining a path with philosophy exists in many languages from the west to the east.

σπαρείς. (part sg aor pass masc nom) "He that received the seed" is from speirô, which is a verb, not a noun. It means "to sow seed", "to scatter like seed," and "to beget offspring.

Related Verses: