Matthew 13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil

KJV Verse: 

Mat 13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

So the hateful/hated one, the one begetting them, is the vilifier. And the reaping is the culmination of one's life. And the harvesters are the messengers.

Hidden Meaning: 

This verse is one that happens to vary a lot from the original Greek, especially what those hearing Christ at the time would have heard. It is also misleading in using the word "world" to refer to something that is more likely the end of a life. It is a perfect example of the problems with "End of the World" ideas in the Gospels discussed in this article

Untranslated is the Greek conjunction usually translated as "but" that joins phrases in an adversarial way. It also explains the effect of a cause, "so."

The term, translated as "the enemy" means both "hated" and "hateful." It is an adjective working as a noun because it is introduced by an article. As single term it encompasses the idea that someone or something who is hated also becomes something filled with hate.

"That sowed" is from a Greek verb that means "to scatter like seed," and "to beget offspring." However, it is in the form of a noun because it is introduced by an article, "the one begetting offspring."

The word "is" is from the verb "to be," which is used to equate things or describe the characteristics of a thing in its current state of existence.

The term translated as "the devil" is another adjective, that means "to slander." Introduced by an article ("the") it becomes a noun and means "the slanderer", "the slander," or "the slandering" in Greek.

Untranslated is the Greek conjunction usually translated as "but" that joins phrases in an adversarial way,which is also used as a weak connective, "and."

"Harvest" is from a noun which means "mowing", "reaping", "harvest time", "harvest," and "crop." In John 4:35, Christ uses this term to refer to the gathering of the fruits for eternal life.

What is translated as "the end of the world" here just as easily could mean "at the completion of a life." More about the ideas behind this phrase in this article.

The word translated as "end" here is different that the one referred to in the article above, telos, but it is a word based on it meaning literally "to bring together for an end." It means a group of people brought together for a joint purpose. so, "a company," and it means the accomplishment of a purpose, so "accomplishment."

The Greek word translated as "the world" does not mean that. It is not he word translated as "the world" in Mat 13:38 The field is the world. It primarily means "the age" as a span of time or "lifetime" as in one's life.

The word translated as "the reapers" is a noun related to the word for "harvest" used above. Both are forms of the noun that means "to reap", "to mow," and "to harvest."

The word translated as "angels" means "messengers" or "envoys."It did not convey our concept of "angels" to anyone hearing Christ speak, which was neither a Greek nor Jewish concept but comes from Zoroastrianism.

Wordplay: 

The word for sowing seeds also means betting offspring. 

Vocabulary: 

"The" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun but here is separated from the noun by the conjunction.

δὲ Untranslated is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἐχθρὸς (adj sg masc nom) "Enemy" is from echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating."

σπείρας (part sg aor act masc nom) "that sowed" is from speirô, which is a verb, that means "to sow seed", "to scatter like seed," and "to beget offspring.

αὐτά (adj pl neut nom/acc)"Them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ἐστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

διάβολος: (adj sg masc/fem nom) "The devil" is from diabolos (diabolos), which means "slanderous", "backbiting," and "slanderer."

"The" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun but here is separated from the noun by the conjunction.

δὲ Untranslated is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

θερισμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Harvest" is from therismos, which means "mowing", "reaping", "harvest time", "harvest," and "crop."

συντέλεια (noun sg fem nom) "End" is from sunteleia (synteleia), which means "joint contribution for the public burdens", "(compulsory) provision of recruits", "a body of citizens who contributed jointly to bear public burdens," generally, "company", "the consummation of a scheme", "an end of", "full realization", "unjust gain," and, in Grammar, "completed action."

αἰῶνός (noun sg masc gen) "Age" is from aion, which means "life", "lifetime", "age", "one's life", "destiny", "lot", "eternity", "space of time", "for ever", "all one's life long," or "generation."

ἐστιν, (verb 3rd sg pres ind act ) "Is" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.")

οἱ "The" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun but here is separated from the noun by the conjunction.

δὲ "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

θερισταὶ (noun pl masc nom/dat) "The reapers" is from theristes, which means "a reaper," and "harvester."

ἄγγελοί "Angels" is from aggelos, (aggelos) which means "messenger" and "envoy."

εἰσιν.

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