Matthew 16:18 ...That thou art Peter,

KJV Verse: 

Mat 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

I, however, also say to you that you are Rocky and upon this pinnacle I will construct my assembly and the entry of death shall not overcome it.

Hidden Meaning: 

Christ combines the verb for home building with the noun for "a called assembly". So a home where people are called to assemble becomes "the church." "Rock" is usually explained to mean a solid foundation, but the Greek is closer to the idea of a high promontory, a rocky cliff above the sea or a rocky peak. this is something that people look up to. The term translated as "hell" is the Greek concept of hell so the sense is something that fades from memory. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is usually translated as "but" because it joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

"Also" is from a contraction of "I" and the conjunction usually translated as "and." Since, information about the subject is part of the verb, Christ doesn't usually use the pronoun as a subject of a sentence unless he wants to emphasize it.

The word translated as "tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

In the Greek source, this is a word here that means "that" or "because."

"Peter" is from the Greek word for Peter, which is the equivalent of the name "Rocky" in English.

"Rock" is translated from a Greek word which means "rock", "boulder," and "stone" as a building material. It also has the specific meaning of "rocky cliffs" of "ledges" over the sea and a "rocky peak" or "ridge."

"I will build" is from a verb that means specifically "to build a house." It generally mains "to fashion" and is a metaphor meaning "to build upon" or "to build up."

"Church" is from a Greek which means an "assembly duly called." It come from two Greek words, "to call away from."

"Gates" is translated from a Greek word that means "one wing of a double gate", "gates of a town," and "entrance." It is used specifically in Greek literature for the gates to the nether world. this is the first indication that what is referred to here is not "hell" but the Greek idea of the nether world, the realm of the dead.

"Hell" is from the Greek term for the netherworld. It is a place of departed spirits. It is also a synonym for "death." This term is only used one other time in Matthew to describe "hell," when Christ condemns Capernaum. The usually terms translated as "hell" is gehenna, the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem. See this article on the words for "hell".  

"Prevail" is from katischuô, which means "to overpower", "to prevail," and "to have the upper hand."

Vocabulary: 

κἀγὼ "Also" is from kago, a contraction of kai ego. "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." "I" is from ego, which is the first person singular pronoun meaning "I". It also means "I at least", "for my part", "indeed," and "for myself."

δέ "And" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

σοι (pron 2nd sg dat ) "You" is from soi which is the singular, second person pronoun, "you".

λέγω (verb 1st sg pres ind act) "I say" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

ὅτι "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

σὺ (pron 2nd sg nom) "Thou" is from su which means "you" and "your."

εἶ (erb 2nd sg pres ind actO "Art" is from eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." -- The verb here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition.

Πέτρος, "Peter" is from Petros which is the equivalent of the name "Rocky" in English. "Rock" is from petra, which means "rock", "boulder," and "stone" as a building material. It also has the specific meaning of "rocky cliffs" of "ledges" over the sea and a "rocky peak" or "ridge."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, is best translated as "not only...but also."

ἐπὶ "Upon" is from epi. which means "on", "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," and "against." -- The word translated as "unto" means "against", "before", "by" or "on."

ταύτῃ "This" is from tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why." -- The "this" is from a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why." It is not typically used as an adjective.

τῇ πέτρᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Rock" is from petra, which means "rock", "boulder," and "stone" as a building material. It also has the specific meaning of "rocky cliffs" of "ledges" over the sea and a "rocky peak" or "ridge."

οἰκοδομήσω ( verb 1st sg fut ind act ) "I will build" is from oikodomeô, which means "to build a house." It generally menas "to fashion" and is a metaphor meaning "to build upon" or "to build up."

μου "My" is from mou, which mean "my," or "mine."

τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, (noun sg fem acc) "Church" is from ekklêsia, which means an "assembly duly called." It come from two Greek words, "to call away from."

 

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πύλαι (noun sg fem dat ) "Gates" is from pulê, which means "one wing of a double gate", "gates of a town," and "entrance." It is used specifically in Greek literature for the gates to the nether world.

ᾄδου (noun sg masc gen) "Hell" is from hades, the Greek term for the netherworld. It is a place of departed spirits. It is also a synonym for "death." This term is only used one other time in Matthew to describe "hell," when Christ condemns Capernaum. The usually terms translated as "hell" is gehenna, the burning trash dump outside of Jerusalem.

οὐ "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective. -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact.

κατισχύσουσιν (verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "Prevail" is from katischuô, which means "to overpower", "to prevail", "to have the upper hand", "come to one's full strength," and, in the transitive, "strengthen," and "encourage."

αὐτῆς: (adj sg fem gen) "It" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."