Luke 13:28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

In that place, there is going to be the crying and the chattering of the teeth. You will perceive for yourselves Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob and all the shining lights in the realm of the Divine, you, however, tossing yourselves out of outside. 

KJV : 

Luke 13:28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

In this verse, those being addressed are not "thrust" out. They toss themselves out. Again, while the translation sounds dire, there are clearly humorous elements that soften the message. This verse rearranged the words used by Jesus in Matthew 8:11  and Matthew 8:12

The word translated as "there" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there". Because "there" can be used as a "helper" to clarify the Greek verb "to be" (see below), "in the place" works best. 

When the verb "to be" appears in the future and so it is translated as "shall be,".  When the Greek verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject ro without a subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." In this case, "there will be" works". 

The "weeping" comes from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep", "to cry", "to lament," and "to wail."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, it also means "chattering". Used with the word "darkness," it gives a sense of extreme cold, but the same phrase is also used to refer to tossing people in the fire (Matthew 13:50).

The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief. Toothaches are serious, continued, painful conditions.

The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

The Greek word for "you shall see" used here primarily means seeing with the eyes or using to eyes, for example, to aim at something. The base of this word is the Greek term for the eye. However, it is also a metaphor for mental perceptions, but perceiving with the mind and to experience. It is also a term used to refer to seeing visions. The form of this word is a person acting for or on themselves, so "you will perceive for yourselves".  

The Hebrew names of the Jewish patriarchs have no special meaning in Greek. However, while Christ is referring to the historical figures in Jewish history, we can also understand his meaning more metaphorically in terms more relevant to use today as discussed in this article.

The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. 

The Greek word translated as "prophets" means "one who speaks for God", "interpreter" and was the highest level of priesthood in Egypt. Christ uses it to refer not only to divine spokespeople but their books in the OT. It is the verb that means "to shine before" as we might describe people as "luminaries" or "shining lights". 

The word translated as "in" also means "within" as "within" a group or also "among."

The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

The word translated as "of God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine".  Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

The Greek word translated as "and" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.  

There is no "yourselves" in the Greek and but it might be added because of the form of the verb. 

The Greek word translated as "thrust out" is a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. Jesus uses this word and its root as we use "toss" in English, to have somewhat of a light feeling. The "out" is included in the verb. 

As second word that can be translated as "out" appears here. It means "out of a place" and "outside." Since it is already part of the verb, the sense is more "outside", but the effect is exaggerated in comedic repetition. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἐκεῖ (adv) "There" is ekei, which means "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." -- "Yonder place" is a word meaning "there", "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world."

ἔσται (verb 3rd sg fut ind mid) "Is" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." (The future form is esomai. The 3rd person present indicative is "esti.") -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. -- When the verb "to be" appears early in the sentence before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are." 

κλαυθμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Weeping" is from klauthmos which means "a weeping" or "a wailing".  

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

βρυγμὸς (noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is from brugmos , which means "biting", "gobbling," and "chattering."

τῶν ὀδόντων. (noun pl masc gen )"Of teeth" is from odous, which means "tooth", "anything pointed", "prong", "spike", "peak," and "tooth [of a saw]." It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

ὅταν (adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

ὄψησθε (verb 2nd pl fut ind mid ) "You shall see" is optanomai, which means "to see", "to look", "to aim at", "to look towards", "to have sight", "to take heed," (in transitive) "to behold", "to perceive", "to observe", "to look out for," and "to be seen (passive)." It is a metaphor for mental sight, "to perceive", "to discern", "to see visions", "to appear in visions (passion), and "to interview."

Ἀβραὰμ (Aramaic) "Abraham" is from Abraam, which is the Greek form of "Abraham."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

Ἰσαὰκ (Aramaic) "Isaac" is from Isaak.

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

Ἰακὼβ (Aramaic) "Jacob" is from Iakob.

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

πάντας (adj pl masc acc) "All" is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." 

τοὺς προφήτας (noun pl masc acc) "The prophets" is prophetes, which means "one who speaks for a god and interprets his will", "interpreter", "keepers of the oracle", "the highest level of priesthood in Egypt", "interpreter," and "herald." It is a verb that means "to shine forth" It is a form of the verb, prophao. which means "to shine forth," or "to shine before." 

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ βασιλείᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "The kingdom" is from basileia, which means "kingdom", "dominion", "hereditary monarchy", "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign."

τοῦ θεοῦ, (noun sg masc gen) "God" is theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

ὑμᾶς (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." --

δὲ (conj) "And" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). --  

ἐκβαλλομένους (part pl pres mp masc acc) "Thrust out" is ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter." --

ἔξω. (adv) "Out" is exo, which means "out of a place", "outside", "external things," and "beyond a time." 

Front Page Date: 

Jun 3 2018