Matthew 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory,

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

A parable about the final judgment of the sheep and the goats.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

When, however, he comes, this son of the man, in that acclaim of his, and all those messengers of his with him, then he will seat himself on a judge's bench of his acclaim.

My Takeaway: 

When it comes to a final judgment, Jesus chairs the meeting.

KJV : 

Matthew 25:31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:

NIV : 

Matthew 25:31 When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his glorious throne.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

"Glory" is a word that means "recognition" and "reputation". Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible. The word "acclaim" comes closest to capturing the way Jesus uses the word.

"Throne" is from an untranslated Greek word that means "chair" but came to means "throne" (as the Greek source of our word). It also means the "chair" of a teacher, the "chair" of a state official, or the "chair" of a judge. Our English word "chair" is used in all of these ways as well. Jesus almost always uses it in the context of acting as a judge, so "judge's bench.". This is certainly its use in this story.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ὅταν [70 verses](adv/conj) "When" is from hotan, which means "whenever (as a condition)," and "since (as a cause)."

δὲ [446 verses](conj) Untranslated is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

ἔλθῃ [198 verses](verb 3rd sg aor subj act) "Shall come" is from erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out," "to come," "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

(article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

υἱὸς (noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child."

τοῦ [692 verses](article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀνθρώπου [209 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἔρχεσθαι [198 verses](verb pres inf mp) "Come" is from erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out," "to come," "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place.

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is from en, which means "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ[692 verses](article sg fem dat)   "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

δόξῃ [26 verses](noun sg fem dat) "Glory" is doxa, which means "expectation" and "opinion." It came to mean "reputation," especially "good repute," "honor," "glory" and rarely "ill repute." It came to mean "glory" and "magnificence" in external appearance through Christian writing after the Gospels were written.

αὐτοῦ [720 verses](noun sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

πάντες [212 verses](adj pl masc nom) "All" is from pas, which means "all," "the whole," "every," "anyone," "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way," "on every side," "in every way," and "altogether."

οἱ [692 verses](article pl masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἄγγελοι (noun pl masc nom) "Angels" is from aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use.

μετ[103 verses](prep) "With" is from meta, which means "with," "in the midst of," "among," "between," "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," "in one's dealings with," "into the middle of," "coming into," "in pursuit of," "after," "behind," "according to," and "next afterward."

αὐτοῦ,” [720 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." -

τότε [53 verses](adv) "Then" is from tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

καθίσει [15 verses](verb 2nd sg fut ind mid) "He shall sit" is from kathizô, which means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint," "to establish," "to put in a certain condition," "to reside," "to sink down," "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

ἐπὶ [138 verses](prep) "Against" is from epi. which means "on," "upon," "at," "by," "before," "across," and "against." -- The word translated as "unto" means "against," "before," "by" or "on."

θρόνου [5 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Throne" is from thronos, which means "seat," "chair," "seat of state," "chair of a teacher," and "judge's bench."

δόξης [26 verses](noun sg fem gen) "Glory" is from doxa, which means "expectation," "notion," "opinion," "repute," and "popular repute." Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are applied to external appearances but are found primarily in translating the Bible. The words "recognition" and "reputation" come closest to capturing the way Christ uses the word, especially if we consider how he uses the verb form.

αὐτοῦ, [720 verses](adj sg masc gen) "His" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

KJV Analysis: 

When  - The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

missing "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word here that is usually translated as "but"m joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people", and "peoples". 

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

come -- The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. See this article for more. It is not in the future tense, but in a form indicating something that might happen.

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

glory,  - "Glory" is a word that means "recognition" and "reputation". Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

all -- The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

holy -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "holy" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

angels -- (UW)  "Angels" is a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT. Jesus uses this word to describe the means by which the Divine communicates his desires.

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

him, -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  

then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then".

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

he-- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

sit  - "Sit" is from a word that means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." This word is in the future tense and it a form that refers to person acting on themselves, so "will seat himself."

upon - The word translated as "upon" means "on," "over," "upon," "against," "before," "after", "during," "by" "in the case of." or "on."

the -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

throne  - (UW) "Throne" is from a word that means "chair" but came to means "throne" (as the Greek source of our word), but Christ almost always uses it in the context of acting as a judge, so "judge's bench," another of its main meanings, is most likely. This is certainly its use in this story.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

glory: - "Glory" is a word that means "recognition" and "reputation". Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible.

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "glory" is not shown in the English translation.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "holy" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" before "throne" doesn't exist in the source.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "throne" means "chair" or "judge's bench." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

NIV Analysis: 

When  - The Greek word translated as "when" introduces a phrase that explains a certain condition so "whenever" or "since."

missing "however"  -- (MW) The untranslated word here that is usually translated as "but"m joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people", and "peoples".

comes -- The word translated as "comes" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. See this article for more. It is not in the future tense, but in a form indicating something that might happen.

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

glory,  - "Glory" is a word that means "recognition" and "reputation". Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

all -- The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

angels -- (UW)  "Angels" is a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT. Jesus uses this word to describe the means by which the Divine communicates his desires.

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

him, -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  

missing "then"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "then" means "at this time" or "then".

he-- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

sit  - "Sit" is from a word that means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." This word is in the future tense and it a form that refers to person acting on themselves, so "will seat himself."

on - The word translated as "on" means "on," "over," "upon," "against," "before," "after", "during," "by" "in the case of." or "on."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.   This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

glorious : - (WF) "Glorious" is a noun that means "recognition" and "reputation". Translations as "glory" or "splendor" are found primarily in translating the Bible. It is a possessive noun following throne so "of a glory."

throne.

throne  - (UW) "Throne" is from a word that means "chair" but came to means "throne" (as the Greek source of our word), but Christ almost always uses it in the context of acting as a judge, so "judge's bench," another of its main meanings, is most likely. This is certainly its use in this story.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "however" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "glory" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "angels" means "messengers." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "glorious" is a noun not an adjective, "reputation."
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "throne" means "chair" or "judge's bench." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

Front Page Date: 

Nov 17 2021