Matthew 26:2 You know that after two days

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Events leading to the Last Supper and crucifixion.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

You have seen that within two day it happens, the paschal feast, and the son of the man gives himself over into that being staked.

My Takeaway: 

Jesus chose to be betrayed

KJV : 

Matthew 26:2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.

NIV : 

Matthew 26:2 “As you know, the Passover is two days away—and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.”

What is Lost in Translation: 

The "you know" that begins this verse literally means "you have seen." The verb means primarily "to see," though it was used like we use "see" to mean "know." The strange thing is that is the past perfect, something completed in the past.

While the KJV English in this verse is designed to emphasize Jesus's betrayal as a passive victim, "betrayed" (KJV) or "handed over" (NIV) the original Greek portrays the event as possibly  his voluntary choice. The verb is in a form that can be passive or the middle voice, where the subject acts on themselves.  The fact is that he did hand himself over because he knew what was to happen and didn't avoid it.

Jesus foretells the manner of his own death, he doesn't use the term for "crucify."  The Greek word means literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence. The English "crucify" comes from the later Latin, not the original Greek, but the Latin word meant a "to stake" like the Greek word did.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Οἴδατε [38 verses](verb 2nd pl perf ind act) "Ye know" is oida which is a form of eido, (eido) which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

ὅτι [332 verses](adv/conj) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

μετὰ [103 verses](prep) "After" is from meta, which means "with", "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of", "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward." --

δύο. [36 verses](numeral) "Two" is from duo, which means the number "two", "a couple," and "a pair." -- The Greek word for "two" means "two" or a "couple."

ἡμέρας [96 verses](noun fem pl acc) "Days" is from hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life", "a time (poetic)", "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet", "tame (animals)", "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πάσχα [6 verses](irreg sg neut nom") The feast of passover" is from pascha, which means the "paschal feast."

γίνεται, [117 verses](verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is" is from ginomai, which means "to become", "to come into being", "to happen", "to be produced," and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi)which indicates existence in the same state.

καὶ  [1089 verses](conj/adv)"And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

[821 verses] (article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

υἱὸς [157 verses](noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child."

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀνθρώπου [209 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

παραδίδοται [43 verses](verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is betrayed" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

εἰς [325 verses](prep)  "To" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ [821 verses] (article sg neut acc) Untranslated is the Greek article, "the," which usually precedes a noun but here precedes an infinitive, which causes the infinitive take the form of a noun describing the action.

σταυρωθῆναι. [3 verses](verb aor inf pass) "Be crucified" is from stauroo, which means "to stake", "to be fenced with poles" or "piles driven into a foundation." From the root, staros, which means "an upright pole or stake." This term was used for a stake (or "pale") used for impaling and with the Christian era, the cross. However, in this form

KJV Analysis: 

Ye -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

know  - (WT) The verb translated as "know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the word "see" to mean "know" in English. Here, the form is of an action that has been completed in the past, "you have seen."

that -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

after  -  "After" is the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after." In the accusative, we have here, in a sequence of time, it means "after" or "next to."

two -- The "two" is the numeral, "two," which, like numbers in English, plays a lot of roles.

days -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

is - (WW) The word translated as "is" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. Describing events it means "to happen."

the feast of -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "the feast of" in the Greek source.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

passover, - "Passover" is the Greek word that means the "paschal feast."  It has an article before it, so "the passover".

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man," "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people," and "peoples." 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

betrayed  - (CW) "Betrayed" is from a compound word that literally means "to give over." It is in a form that means "gives himself over." Jesus is actively giving himself over. This same translation was made in Matthew 17:22. It is also in a form the is either passive or where the subject acts on himself. While the KJV English in this verse is designed to emphasize Jesus's betrayal as a passive victim, the original Greek portrays the event as possibly  his voluntary choice.

to -  (CW) The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. This looks like a "to" introducing an infinitive, but it isn't. Though the noun is an infinitive, it is used as a noun because it is preceded by an article.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

crucified.  - "Crucified" comes from a word that means literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence. Here is is passive, "being staked" and in the form of a verb used as a noun, which in Greek is an infinitive form but in English is a gerund, ending in "-ing,'" "the being staking."

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "know" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have seen."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "is" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "is" should be something more like "happen."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "betrayed" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "to" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "crucified" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

“As -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "as" in the Greek source.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

know  - (WT) The verb translated as "know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the word "see" to mean "know" in English. Here, the form is of an action that has been completed in the past, "you have seen."

missing "that"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Passover , - "Passover" is the Greek word that means the "paschal feast."  It has an article before it, so "the passover".

missing "after"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of". It is not the term usually translated as "after." In the accusative, we have here, in a sequence of time, it means "after" or "next to."

is - (CW) The word translated as "is" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. Describing events it means "to happen."

two -- The "two" is the numeral, "two," which, like numbers in English, plays a lot of roles.

days -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

away -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "away" in the Greek source.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Man - The Greek word for "man" means "man," "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people," and "peoples."

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future.

be  -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

handed over  - "Handed over" is from a compound word that literally means "to give over." It is in a form that means "gives himself over." Jesus is actively giving himself over. This same translation was made in Matthew 17:22. It is also in a form the is either passive or where the subject acts on himself. While the KJV English in this verse is designed to emphasize Jesus's betrayal as a passive victim, the original Greek portrays the event as possibly  his voluntary choice.

to -  (CW) The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. This looks like a "to" introducing an infinitive, but it isn't. Though the noun is an infinitive, it is used as a noun because it is preceded by an article.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

crucified.  - "Crucified" comes from a word that means literally "to stake," that is, to drive a stake into the ground and was commonly used to describe building a fence. Here is is passive, "being staked" and in the form of a verb used as a noun, which in Greek is an infinitive form but in English is a gerund, ending in "-ing,'" "the being staking."

NIV Translation Issues: 

10
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "as" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "know" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have seen."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "after" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "is" should be something more like "happen."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "away" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" indicates the future tense, but that is not the tense here.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "to" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "crucified" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Dec 3 2021