Matthew 5:43 ...You shall love your neighbour,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Sermon on Mount, law and fulfillment, visible and hidden, debts and repayment

Greek : 

Matthew 5:43 Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθηἈγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σουκαὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου.

Leviticus 19:18. ...καὶ ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ...

Psalm 139:22 (LXX 138:22) τέλειον μῗσος ἐμίσουν αὐτούς εἰς ἐχθροὺς ἐγένοντό μοι

Literal Verse: 

You've listened to what has been said, "Embrace the one close to you and hate the one hated."

My Takeaway: 

Caring for others is the repayment of the debt we those to those who care for us. Hating others in repaying the debt created by those who hate us.

KJV : 

Matthew 5:43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.

NIV : 

Matthew 5:43  You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’

3rd Translation: 

Matthew 5:43 You have heard the law that says, ‘Love your neighbor’ and hate your enemy.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The introductory section is the sixth and last iteration of the catchphrase. Its repetition and use of an uncommon, exaggerated word are humorous. The verb translated as "said/told" is uncommon for Jesus to use except in this phrase.  This verb has a more serious meaning, "to proclaim" or "to pronounce," and a lighter meaning "to be mentioned" and "to be pronounced." It is contrasted with the normal word for "tell" or "say" that Jesus uses to describe his viewpoint in the next verse.

The Greek concept of "love" and "hate" are very different than our own. They don't describe emotions as much as relationships. The are also relative, that is, comparative terms. See this article for more.

This is the first time Jesus uses this word for "love," but there are two different words Jesus uses that are translated as "love" in English, and Jesus uses them both differently. This is the love that means feeling the need to take care of someone, for example, for family members.  The "love" phrase uses the same words as the traditional Jewish teaching in Leviticus 19:18. "Neighbor" means someone nearby, a member of your own people not others.

The second part of this phrase, "hating enemies" seems a twisting of Psalm  139:22 which is about hating God's enemies.  While there are many references to loving neighbors in the OT, there is only one reference in the OT, Psalm 139:21-22. is to only reference to hating enemies, at least in these words.  The word translated as "enemy" has a different root than the verb "hate" but the word has the sense of "the hated," "the hating," and "the hateful."

Wordplay: 

The verse is a humorous tautology. When we embrace someone, they are close to us, by definition. When we hate someone, they are hated, again, by definition. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἠκούσατε (2nd pl aor ind act ) "Ye have heard" is from akouo, which means "hear of", "hear tell of", "what one actually hears", "know by hearsay", "listen to", "give ear to", "hear and understand," and "understand."

ὅτι (adv) "That" is from hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that", "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

ἐρρέθη [9 verses](3rd sg aor ind pass) "It hath been said," is from ero, which means "to speak", "to say", "to pronounce", "to tell", "to let suffice", "to announce", "to proclaim," (in passive) "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised."

Ἀγαπήσεις (2nd sg aor subj act) "Love" is from agapao,which means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", "to caress", "to prize", "to desire", "to be pleased with," and "to be contented with." This love is more associated with affection in relationships where we are obligated. Jesus uses another word. Jesus uses another word, phileô, which means "to love", "to like", "to be fond of doing," and "to show affection" to express "love" in the sense of like and dislike.He never uses the word eros, which describes romantic, sexual love.

τὸν (article sg masc acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

πλησίον (adj sg masc acc) "Neighbor" is from plesion, which means "close", "near,"neighboring, " and "one's neighbor."

σου” (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

μισήσεις (2nd sg aor subj) "Hate" is from miseo, which means "to hate" and in passive, "to be hated."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐχθρόν (adj sg masc acc) Enemy" is from echthros, which means "the hated", "the hateful", "the hostile", "the enemy", "the alienated," and "the hating." It is from the verb echtho that means "to hate."

σου. (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thine" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

KJV Analysis: 

Ye -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

hath -- (WT) This would be make the tense the past perfect, but it is the simply past.

been -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

said--  (CW) The verb translated as "it was said," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised." There are three other Greek verbs that are much more commonly used to say "said" or "tell".

Thou  -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

shalt -- (CW) This helping verb "shalt" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

love  -- The word translated as "love" expresses a lot of different ideas including "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", and "to be contented with." Jesus however, applies it to relationships where we have a duty to care for others: family, God, etc. Another word, also translated as "love" is used to for relationships of affectionate friendship that are more voluntary. To distinguish this word, translated it as "cares for" seems to work best. See this article on love for more information.

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second-person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

neighbour, -- The Greek word translated as "neighbor" is an adjective meaning "near" and "close to." Used as a noun, it means "one's neighbor" or "one you are close to". This concept of "neighbor" has been broadened by Jesusian teaching to include, more or less, everyone. The meaning of Christ was clearly those nearby.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

hate -- (CW) The word translated as "hate" means only "to hate." Jesus often uses it as a counterpoint to both of the Greek words translated as"love" in the Gospels. This contrast is important because, unlike the English "hate", which is an absolute emotion, the Greek "hate" is a term of relative negative preference. A neighbor may be hated in comparison to a family member, but loved in comparison to a stranger.

thine -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

enemy. -- The Greek word translated as "enemies" has the primary meaning of is "the hated" or "the hateful" though from a different root word. The pure sense of the Greek here is that the social consensus is to hate those who others around us hate. This gets more interesting because a secondary meaning of this Greek word is "the hating" and "the hostile," that is, those who hate us. This is another common human reaction to others.

KJV Translation Issues: 

7
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "hath" seems to indicate an action completed in the past, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "said" is not one of the common Greek words for the simple idea of "say."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shalt" does not mean the future tense.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "neighbor" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "hate" is not a command but something that "should" happen.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "enemy" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

was -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

said--  (CW) The verb translated as "it was said," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised." There are three other Greek verbs that are much more commonly used to say "said" or "tell".

‘Love -- (WF) The word translated as "love" expresses a lot of different ideas including "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", and "to be contented with." Jesus however, applies it to relationships where we have a duty to care for others: family, God, etc. Another word, also translated as "love" is used to for relationships of affectionate friendship that are more voluntary. To distinguish this word, translated it as "cares for" seems to work best. See this article on love for more information.

your -- The word translated as "your" is the possessive form of the second-person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

neighbor, -- The Greek word translated as "neighbor" is an adjective meaning "near" and "close to." Used as a noun, it means "one's neighbor" or "one you are close to". This concept of "neighbor" has been broadened by Jesus teaching to include, more or less, everyone. The meaning of Christ was clearly those nearby.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

hate -- (WF) The word translated as "hate" means only "to hate." Jesus often uses it as a counterpoint to both of the Greek words translated as"love" in the Gospels. This contrast is important because, unlike the English "hate", which is an absolute emotion, the Greek "hate" is a term of relative negative preference. A neighbor may be hated in comparison to a family member, but loved in comparison to a stranger.

your -- The word translated as "your" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

enemy. -- The Greek word translated as "enemies" has the primary meaning of is "the hated" or "the hateful" though from a different root word. The pure sense of the Greek here is that the social consensus is to hate those who others around us hate. This gets more interesting because a secondary meaning of this Greek word is "the hating" and "the hostile," that is, those who hate us. This is another common human reaction to others.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "said" is not one of the common Greek words for the simple idea of "say."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "love" is not a command but statement about what "should" happen.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "neighbor" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -- The "hate" is not a command but statement about what "should" happen.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "enemy" is not shown in the English translation.

3rd Analysis: 

You -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verbs here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

heard -- "Heard" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb that Christ uses meaning "to hear". It also means "to listen" and "to understand".

the law -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "the law" in the Greek source.

that - The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what", "because", "since," and "wherefore."

says --  (CW) The verb translated as "says," means "to pronounce", "to mention", " "to announce", "to proclaim,"   and, in the passive as used here, "to be pronounced", "to be mentioned", "to be specified", "to be agreed," and "to be promised." There are three other Greek verbs that are much more commonly used to say "said" or "tell".

‘Love -- (WF) The word translated as "love" expresses a lot of different ideas including "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", and "to be contented with." Jesus however, applies it to relationships where we have a duty to care for others: family, God, etc. Another word, also translated as "love" is used to for relationships of affectionate friendship that are more voluntary. To distinguish this word, translated it as "cares for" seems to work best. See this article on love for more information.

your -- The word translated as "your" is the possessive form of the second-person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

neighbor, -- The Greek word translated as "neighbor" is an adjective meaning "near" and "close to." Used as a noun, it means "one's neighbor" or "one you are close to". This concept of "neighbor" has been broadened by Jesus teaching to include, more or less, everyone. The meaning of Christ was clearly those nearby.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

hate -- (WF) The word translated as "hate" means only "to hate." Jesus often uses it as a counterpoint to both of the Greek words translated as"love" in the Gospels. This contrast is important because, unlike the English "hate", which is an absolute emotion, the Greek "hate" is a term of relative negative preference. A neighbor may be hated in comparison to a family member, but loved in comparison to a stranger.

your -- The word translated as "your" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

enemy. -- The Greek word translated as "enemies" has the primary meaning of is "the hated" or "the hateful" though from a different root word. The pure sense of the Greek here is that the social consensus is to hate those who others around us hate. This gets more interesting because a secondary meaning of this Greek word is "the hating" and "the hostile," that is, those who hate us. This is another common human reaction to others.

3rd Issue Count: 

7
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "have" means "should."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "the law" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "says" is not one of the common Greek words for the simple idea of "say."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "love" is not a command but statement about what "should" happen.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "neighbor" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -- The "hate" is not a command but statement about what "should" happen.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "enemy" is not shown in the English translation.

evidence: 

42.00

Front Page Date: 

May 19 2020