Matthew 5:47 And if you salute only your brothers,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Sermon on Mount, law and fulfillment, visible and hidden, debts and repayment

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Also, when you hug those friends of yours only, what more are you all doing out of the ordinary ? Assuredly not! And those foreigners act the same!

My Takeaway: 

People everywhere love their families, and that is a reward in itself.

KJV : 

Matthew 5:47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?

NIV : 

Matthew 5:47  And if you greet only your own people, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that?

3rd Translation: 

Matthew 5:47 If you are kind only to your friends, how are you different from anyone else? Even pagans do that.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The contrast in this verse is between the word translated as "brethren/friends" and the word translated as "publicans/pagans," but the contrast is more clear with a more accurate translation, "friends" and "foreigners." The contrast used here makes the word "foreigners" seem more like Jesus means "strangers."

The word translated as "salute/greet/be kind" means "welcome." That word applies in very different ways to friends and strangers.

The negative in the last sentence (dropped in the NLT version) is not one one that makes the sentence negative. It is most likely not even part of the sentence. It is a negative emphantc, possibly answering a question.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐὰν  (conj) "If" is ean, which is a conditional particle (derived from ei (if) and an (might), which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event.

ἀσπάσησθε [3 verses](2nd pl aor subj mp) "Ye salute" is aspazomai, which means "to welcome kindly", "to greet", "to be glad", "to kiss", "to embrace", "to cling fondly to," "to draw to one's self", "to follow eagerly [of things]", "to cleave to [of things], "to receive with joy," and "to salute [from a distance]."

τοὺς (article pl masc acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). --

ἀδελφοὺς (noun pl masc acc ) "Brethren" is from adelphos, which means "son of the same mother", "kinsman", "colleague", "associate," and "brother."

ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) "Your" is from humon, which is a plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

μόνον, (adj sg neut nom/acc) Only" is from monos, which means "alone,""solitary," "only," "single," "unique," "made in one piece," "without [someone]," "only [something]", "unique", "one above all others," and "on one condition only."

τί (pron sg neut nom/acc) "What" is from tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."

περισσὸν (adj sg neut nom/acc) "More" is from perissos, which means "beyond the regular number of size", "out of the common", "extraordinary" "more than sufficient", "superfluous", "useless", "excessive", "extravagant", "over-wise", "over-curious", "abundantly," and "remarkable."

ποιεῖτε; (2nd pl pres imperat act or 2nd pl pres ind act) "Do" is from poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do."

οὐχὶ (adv) "Not" is from ouchi, an adverb which means "no", "no truly", "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," "notwithstanding", "yet", "still", "never yet", "for not", "indeed", "for surely not", "no,—certainly not", "for I don't suppose," and "for in no manner."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

οἱ (article pl masc nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἐθνικοὶ [4 verses](adj pl masc nom) "Publicans" is from ethnikos, which means "national", "provincial", "foriegn," and "gentile." It was used in the same way we would describe someone as an "ethnic" or "foreigner." Foreigners, the Greeks and Romans, were the rulers of the nation in Christ's time.

τὸ (article sg neut nom/acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

αὐτὸ (adj sg neut nom/acc) "So" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

ποιοῦσιν; (3rd pl pres ind act) ""do" is from poieo, which means "to make", "to produce", "to create", "to bring into existence", "to bring about", "to cause", "to render", "to consider", "to prepare", "to make ready," and "to do."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The verse begins with the Greek conjunction that can be translated as "and", "also," and "even."

if -- The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when".

ye -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

salute -- (CW) The Greek term translated as "salute" generally means to "welcome warmly". It implies physical contact. It generally describes a physical act people do when we greet friends or separate from them., a hug, or other tokens of affection. It is sometimes translated as "welcome" or "salute" but the idea is really a physical hug of closeness and warmth. If is in the form of possibility required by the "when" that begins the phrase.

your -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

brethren -- The Greek term translated as "brethren" is a term that encompasses both family and friends. It is plural and the object of the hug.

only, - The Greek word translated as "only" means "only" and "alone," but it also has the sense of "uniquely" and "above all others." In the KJV translation, it seems to modify the "brothers" that are welcomed, but the form of the word matches the "what" that follows.

what -- The Greek word translated as "what" is also a pronoun meaning "something", "someone", "anything," and many other such meanings. The form used here is more commonly the "something" shade of meaning. Jesus often uses this word to start a question.

do -- The Greek word translated as "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple statement.

ye -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

more -- The term translated as "more" is not the simple "more" bin Greek but a word that means more than normal, something beyond normal that is extraordinary and even excessive.

than others? -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "than others" in the Greek source.

do -- The Greek word translated as "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple statement.

not -- (CW) The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly","not at all,"  "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

even -- (WP) The Greek word translated as "even" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").  This word begins the clause, separating it from the negative.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") that the English "the." See this article for more. 

publicans -- (OS) The word translated as "publicans" was different in the source the KJV used. It used the same word for "tax collector" in the previous verse. In todays' Greek sources, the word used refers to everyone who is not a Jew. This is one of two similar words that often get translated as "gentiles," but this is the less common form, which more clearly means "foreigners."  It has nothing to do with the gods they worship. Jesus uses this word in contrast with "friends" so "strangers."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

so? -- (WW) The word translated as "so" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective as it is here. With the article, the sense is "the same."

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "salute" is closer in meaning to "welcome."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "brethren" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "than others" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "not" is not the negative but an exclamation meaning "assuredly not!"
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "even" is a conjunction that begins the clause.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The word translated as "publican" was the Greek word "tax collector" in the source used by the KJV translators. Today's sources have the Greek word for "foreigner."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "same" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "so" should be "same."

NIV Analysis: 

And -- The verse begins with the Greek conjunction that can be translated as "and", "also," and "even."

if -- The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when".

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

greet -- The Greek term translated as "greet" generally means to "welcome warmly". It implies physical contact. It generally describes a physical act people do when we greet friends or separate from them., a hug, or other tokens of affection. It is sometimes translated as "welcome" or "salute" but the idea is really a physical hug of closeness and warmth. If is in the form of possibility required by the "when" that begins the phrase.

only, - The Greek word translated as "only" means "only" and "alone," but it also has the sense of "uniquely" and "above all others." In the KJV translation, it seems to modify the "brothers" that are welcomed, but the form of the word matches the "what" that follows.

your -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

own people-- The Greek term translated as "own people" is a term that encompasses both family and friends. It is plural and the object of the hug.

what -- The Greek word translated as "what" is also a pronoun meaning "something", "someone", "anything," and many other such meanings. The form used here is more commonly the "something" shade of meaning. Jesus often uses this word to start a question.

are -- This helping verb is added to make this a question.

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

doing -- The Greek word translated as "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple

more -- The term translated as "more" is not the simple "more" bin Greek but a word that means more than normal, something beyond normal that is extraordinary and even excessive.

than others? -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "than others" in the Greek source.

Do -- This helping verb is used to create commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

not -- (CW) The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly","not at all,"  "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

even -- (WP) The Greek word translated as "even" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").  This word begins the clause, separating it from the negative.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

pagans -- (WW) The word translated as "pagens" generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. This is one of two similar words that often get translated as "gentiles," but this is the less common form, which more clearly means "foreigners."  It has nothing to do with the gods they worship. Jesus uses this word in contrast with "friends" so "strangers."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

do -- The Greek word translated as "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple statement.

that? -- (WW) The word translated as "so" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective as it is here. With the article, the sense is "the same."

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "own  people" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "than others" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "not" is not the negative but an exclamation meaning "assuredly not!"
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "even" is a conjunction that begins the clause.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- - The word translated as "pagans" is the Greek word for "foreigner."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "same" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "that" should be "same."

3rd Analysis: 

untranslated "and"-- (MW The verse begins with the Greek conjunction that can be translated as "and", "also," and "even."

If -- The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when".

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

are kind --  (WW) The Greek term translated as "are kind" generally means to "welcome warmly". It implies physical contact. It generally describes a physical act people do when we greet friends or separate from them., a hug, or other tokens of affection. It is sometimes translated as "welcome" or "salute" but the idea is really a physical hug of closeness and warmth. If is in the form of possibility required by the "when" that begins the phrase.

only, - The Greek word translated as "only" means "only" and "alone," but it also has the sense of "uniquely" and "above all others." In the KJV translation, it seems to modify the "brothers" that are welcomed, but the form of the word matches the "what" that follows.

your -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun follows the noun so "of yours."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

friends --  The Greek term translated as "friends" is a term that encompasses both family and friends. It is plural and the object of the hug.

how -- (WW) The word translated as "how" means primarily "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who", "what", or even "why".  It is not the word translated that means "how."

are -- This helping verb is added to make this a question.

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

untranslated "do"-- (MW) The untranslated word "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple statement.

different -- The term translated as "different" is not the simple "more" bin Greek but a word that means more than normal, something beyond normal that is extraordinary and even excessive.

from anyone else? -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "from anyone else? in the Greek source.

untranslated "not at all"-- (MW) The untranslated word "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly","not at all,"  "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

Even -- The Greek word translated as "even" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").  This word begins the clause, separating it from the negative.

pagans do that.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

pagans -- (WW) The word translated as "pagens" generally refers to everyone who is not a Jew. This is one of two similar words that often get translated as "gentiles," but this is the less common form, which more clearly means "foreigners."  It has nothing to do with the gods they worship. Jesus uses this word in contrast with "friends" so "strangers."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

do -- The Greek word translated as "do" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is not as broad a word as the English "do", which covers all actions, productive or not.  It is in the form that could be a command or a simple statement.

that? -- (WW) The word translated as "so" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective as it is here. With the article, the sense is "the same."

3rd Issue Count: 

11
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "are kind" should be "welcome."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "own  people" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "how" should be "what."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word translated as "do" is not translated into English.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "different" should be "more."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "from anyone else?" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "not at all" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "pagans" is the Greek word for "foreigner."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "same" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "that" should be "same."

evidence: 

46.00

Front Page Date: 

May 23 2017