Matthew 8:12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Part of Jesus's response to the faith of the Roman Centurion.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Those, however, children of this realm will e tossed out into the darkness, the outside. In that place there will be the lamentation and the mastication of those teeth.

My Takeaway: 

No one should be judge by their birth.

KJV : 

Matthew 8:12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

NIV : 

Matthew 8:12 But the subjects of the kingdom will be thrown outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.”

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse uses a number of phrases associated Jesus. Christ often uses the phrase "children of the kingdom," but he usually uses it to refer to the "kingdom of the sky". Here it seems to refer to the children of Israel. This is atypical. The phrase usually means the "good seed" (Matthew 13:38).

This is the first time the phrase "outer darkness". It is used elsewhere in parables (Matthew 22:13, Matthew 25:30). However, it is not in the form of an adjective and a noun, but of two adjectives used as nouns, "the darkenss" followed by "the outer." 

The weeping and teeth phrase seems clearly humorous in nature. Jesus speaks speaks verses that use this phrase.  It is always used at the end of the verse as a punchline. "The weeping and gnashing of teeth" are not the common participle froms of "wailing/weeping" and "gnashing" Greek verbs that Jesus uses almost every other verse. They area a more unusual form that we might translate into English as "lamentation" and "mastication." The words are so theatrical that they seem more like Jesus's humor than anger.  For more on this topic, see this article.

Wordplay: 

 The "gnashing of teeth" phrase captures both the sense of what we call "back biting" among people and the pain of loss. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

οἱ (article) "The" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

δὲ (partic) "But" is from de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

υἱοὶ (noun pl masc nom ) "Children" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant and, more generally, any descendent of either sex.

τῆς (article sg fem gen )  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

βασιλείας (noun sg fem gen ) "Kingdom" is from basileia, which means "kingdom," "dominion," "hereditary monarchy," "kingly office," (passive) "being ruled by a king," and "reign."

ἐκβληθήσονται (3rd pl fut ind pass) "Cast out" is from ekballo and means "throw out," "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of," "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter."

εἰς (prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ (article sg neut acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

σκότος [7 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Darkness" is skotos, which means "darkness," "gloom," "blindness," and "dizziness." It is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world.

τὸ (article sg neut acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἐξώτερον: [3 verses](adj sg neut acc) "Outer" is exoteros, which means "outer" and "utter," and literally means "more outside."

ἐκεῖ (adv) "There" is from ekei, which means "there," "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world."

ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) "Shall be" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

(article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

κλαυθμὸς [6 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Weeping" is klauthmos which means "a weeping."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

(article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

βρυγμὸς [7 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Gnashing" is brugmos, which means "biting," "gobbling," and "chattering."

τῶν (article pl masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ὀδόντων. [8 verses](noun pl masc gen) "Of teeth" is odous, which means "tooth," "anything pointed," "prong," "spike," "peak," and "tooth [of a saw]." It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

KJV Analysis: 

But The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

children - The word translated as "children" more generally means "child" and more specifically means "son." It is plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

kingdom The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

cast out "Cast out" is a Greek verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out," "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. The general idea of is "to throw without caring where something falls," so it isn't like putting something into a specific place. The verb is future passive. Christ uses it most commonly to refer to "tossing out" either "demons" or people's lives into the trash

into -- The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a adjective "outer" and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

outer  - The word translated as "outer" is the adjective that means "more outside," but it is preceded by an article, so it acts as a noun, "the outside".

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a adjective "outer" and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

darkness: -  The word translated as "darkness" means "darkness" and "gloom" and it is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world. It is introduced with an article "the."

there  - (CW) "There" is a word meaning "there," "in that place," and in philosophy means "the intelligible world." It is more about a specific place than the English phrase "there is" which can mean much the same as "it is."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - When the verb "to be" appears in the future  and so it is translated as "shall be," but in Greek, it doesn't require the word "there" to mean something like "there will be."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

wailing - The "wailing" come from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep," "to cry," "to lament," and "to wail."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

gnashing  -- (CW) The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, it also means "chattering". Used with the word "darkness," it gives a sense of extreme cold, but the same phrase is also used to refer to tossing people in the fire (Matthew 13:50).

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

teeth. -- The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief. Toothaches are serious, continued, painful conditions.

KJV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "outer" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "darkness" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "there" specifically means "in that place."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "wailing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "gnashing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "gnashing" is a common word usually translated as "batting." It also means "chattering."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "teeth" is not shown in the English translation

NIV Analysis: 

But The Greek word translated as "but" joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

subjects - (WW) The word translated as "children" more generally means "child" and more specifically means "son." It is plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

kingdom The word translated as "kingdom" can be the region, the reign, the castle or the authority of a ruler. Christ does not seem to use it to mean a physical region, so its translation as "reign" or "realm" seems more appropriate. This is especially true because the "reign" of a king means the execution of his will.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

thrown  - "Thrown" is a Greek verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out," "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT. The general idea of is "to throw without caring where something falls," so it isn't like putting something into a specific place. The verb is future passive. Christ uses it most commonly to refer to "tossing out" either "demons" or people's lives into the trash

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a adjective "outer" and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

outside - The word translated as "outer" is the adjective that means "more outside," but it is preceded by an article, so it acts as a noun, "the outside".

into -- (WP) The word translated as "into" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a adjective "outer" and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

darkness: -  The word translated as "darkness" means "darkness" and "gloom" and it is a metaphor in Greek for ignorance and the nether world. It is introduced with an article "the."

where -- The word translated as "there" means "there" or "in that place" but it also means "the intelligible world," that is, the world we understand. It refers to a place much more strongly than our word "there" which can be a simple helper to introduce a verb of being.

there  - -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will " indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be  - When the verb "to be" appears in the future  and so it is translated as "shall be," but in Greek, it doesn't require the word "there" to mean something like "there will be."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

wailing - The "wailing" come from a noun form of the verb "weep" which means "to weep," "to cry," "to lament," and "to wail."

and The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

gnashing  -- (CW) The word translated as "gnashing" which primarily means "biting." However, it also means "chattering". Used with the word "darkness," it gives a sense of extreme cold, but the same phrase is also used to refer to tossing people in the fire (Matthew 13:50).

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

teeth. -- The word translated as "teeth" means tooth but it is a metaphor for the pain of grief. Toothaches are serious, continued, painful conditions.

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "outside" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "into" doesn't appear here but before the "outside."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "darkness" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "weeping" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "gnashing" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "gnashing" is a common word usually translated as "biting." It also means "chattering."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "teeth" is not shown in the English translation

Front Page Date: 

Jul 28 2020