Matthew 23:7 And greetings in the markets,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Jesus is speaking to a crowd including his disciples about scribes and Pharisees.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

and the greetings in the marketplace and to be name themselves "great" by the people.

My Takeaway: 

People seek the approval of others.

KJV : 

Matthew 23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.

NIV : 

Matthew 23:7 they love to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces and to be called ‘Rabbi’ by others.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse is easier to understand if it is combined with the previous verse, Matthew 23:6. The active verb for both verses is in the prior verse ("they prefer"). The "first couches" and "first seats" of the previous verse from a word the means "first" or "highest" plays against the "rabbi" here that means "great." The "prefer" of the previous verse, which can mean "greet with affection" play against the "greetings," used here though a different word.

The verb that means "show sign of affection" from Matthew 23:6 plays with the noun that means "embrace" here. There are also two different words used in these verses that both mean "assembly" or "place of assembly," one here referring to a marketplace and other in the prior verse, meaning a meeting or meeting place.

Wordplay: 

There is a play on words here, using a verb that means "show sign of affection" from Matthew 23:6 with a noun that means "embrace" here. 

There are also two different words used in these verses that both mean "assembly" or "place of assembly," one here referring to a marketplace and other in the prior verse, Matthew 23:6 to a meeting hall. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τοὺς (article pl masc acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀσπασμοὺς [4 verses](noun pl masc acc) "Greetings" is aspasmos, which means "greeting," "embrace," and "affection."

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is from en, which means "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," and "with."

ταῖς (article pl fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀγοραῖς [7 verses](noun pl fem dat) "Markets" is agora, which means "an assembly," "place of assembly," and "marketplace." "Public speaking" meant speaking in the marketplace.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

καλεῖσθαι [38 verses](verb pres inf mp) "To be called" is kaleo, which means "call," "summon," "invite," "invoke," "call by name," and "demand."

ὑπὸ [29 verses](prep) "Of" is from hypo (hupo), which means [with genitive] "from under (of motion)," "down under," under, beneath," indicating a cause with passive verbs, "by," "under," or "with," "under the cover or protection of," "of the agency of feelings, passions," "expressing subjection or dependence," "subordinate," "subject to;" [with accusative] "towards" and "under" (to express motion), "under" (without a sense of motion), "subjection," "control," "dependence," of Time, "in the course of," "during," "about," as an adverb, "under," "below," beneath, the agency or influence under which a thing is done"by," "before,' and "under," (with genitive and passive verbs of cause).

τῶν   Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀνθρώπων [209 verses](noun pl masc gen)) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

Ῥαββεί. (2 verses]"Rabbi" is not from any Greek word, though listed in Strong's as rhabbi, but the Hebrew rab, which means, as an adjective,  "much," "many," "great," "strong," and "greater than." As a masculine noun it means "captain" or "chief."

KJV Analysis: 

And  - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

greetings  - The Greek word translated as "greeting," means "greeting," "embrace," and "affection."

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

markets,  - "Markets" is from a word which means "an assembly," "place of assembly," and "marketplace." "Public speaking" meant speaking in the marketplace. The verb form means "to sell."

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the form could also be the middle voice, "call themselves," but passive is indicated by the preposition following.

called  - -- The term translated as "called" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name," but it does not as clearly mean "to address."

of  - (CW) The word translated as "of" means "by" as a cause when used with a passive verb. Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

men,  - The Greek word for "men" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural. Here it is plural. It is also introduce by an article, "the people."

Rabbi,    - (UW) "Rabbi" is from a Hebrew word, not a Greek word, and adjective that means "much," "many," "great," "strong," and "greater than." As a masculine noun, it means "captain" or "chief."  Jesus only used it in  Matthew 23:7 and Matthew 23:8, telling others not to use it. All other use of this word are by others addressing Jesus, which seems like an inside Joke.

Rabbi. -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as the repeated "Rabbi" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

KJV Translation Issues: 

4
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "of" is not the common word usually translated as "of." Its sense is "by."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "men" is not shown in the English translation.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "rabbi" means "chief." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as the second "Rabbi" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.

NIV Analysis: 

they love -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "they love" in the Greek source. It is repeated from the previous verse.

missing "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

to be greeted - (WF) The Greek word translated as "to be greeted," is not a verb but a noun that means "greeting," "embrace," and "affection."

with respect -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "with respect" in the Greek source.

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

marketplaces,  - "Marketsplaces" is from a word which means "an assembly," "place of assembly," and "marketplace." "Public speaking" meant speaking in the marketplace. The verb form means "to sell."

and - The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the form could also be the middle voice, "call themselves," but passive is indicated by the preposition following.

called  - -- The term translated as "called" is like our word "call" because it means both "to summon" and also "to name," but it does not as clearly mean "to address."

Rabbi,    - (UW) "Rabbi" is from a Hebrew word, not a Greek word, and adjective that means "much," "many," "great," "strong," and "greater than." As a masculine noun, it means "captain" or "chief."  Jesus only used it in  Matthew 23:7 and Matthew 23:8, telling others not to use it. All other use of this word are by others addressing Jesus, which seems like an inside Joke.

by - The word translated as "of" means "by" as a cause when used with a passive verb. Its primary meaning is "under" both in the sense of moving under, being under, and being under different forms of compulsion.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

others,  -  (WW) The Greek word for "others" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural. Here it is plural. It is also introduce by an article, "the people."

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "they love" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "to be greeted" is not a verb but a noun, "greetings."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "with respect" doesn't exist in the source.
  • UW - Untranslated Word -- The word "rabbi" means "chief." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "men" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Jul 29 2021