Matthew 20:18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem...

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Jesus is leading the apostles to Jerusalem.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

See there? We are going up towards Jerusalem. And this son of the man will be handed over to the high priests and writers, and they will sentence him to death.

KJV : 

Matthew 20:18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death,

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is the only time Jesus uses the word "high priest" in Matthew, using it twice in Mark, and once in Luke.

The term "scribe" is translated as "teachers of the law" in the NIV, but this was not their primary role in Judean society. They were responsible for writing legal contracts. Lawyers were an overlapping category, those who were knowledgeable about the law. Lawyers may have had a role in court that scribes did not have. Either group could obviously teach or advise others, but their primary function was not teaching. Pharisees,which means "the distinguished" were the educated group that clearly dominated both scribes and lawyers in Galilee, but they were a separate group, with specific ideas about the meaning of the law. This group was itself divided on certain issues like divorce.

NIV : 

Matthew 20:18 “We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "we go up" also means to ascend to higher knowledge. The height of the city is emphasized by the "high" priests, and contrasted with Christ being "judged down" by them." 

My Takeaway: 

Knowing the future is not necessarily a blessing.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Ἰδοὺ [52 verses](adv, verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid) "Behold is idou, which means "to behold", "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see." -- "Behold" is from an adverb meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!"

ἀναβαίνομεν [14 verses](verb 1st pl pres ind act) "We go up" is anabaino, which means "go up", "mount", "ascend," [of ships] "go onboard", "rise to speak", "ascend to higher knowledge," [of plants] "shoot up," [of events] "result from," [of a male] "mount," and [of hearts] "enter."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "To" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

Ἰεροσόλυμα, [15 verses](Aramaic) "Jerusalem" is Hierosolyma, which is the Greek word that denotes the city or its inhabitants.

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

(article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

υἱὸς [158 verses](noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

παραδοθήσεται [43 verses](verb 3rd sg fut ind pass) "Shall be betrayed" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

τοῖς (article pl masc dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀρχιερεῦσιν [4 verses](noun pl masc dat) "Unto the Chief priests" is archiereus, which means "arch-priest" and "chief priest."

καὶ (conj) And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

γραμματεῦσιν, [17 verses](noun pl masc dat) "Scribes" is grammateus, which is generally a "secretary", "registrar", "recorder," and "scholar," but specifically means someone who uses gramma which is Greek for "drawings", "a letter," (as in an alphabet)"diagrams," and "letters" (as in correspondence).

καὶ (conj) And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

κατακρινοῦσιν [10 verses](verb 3rd pl fut ind act) "They shall condemn" is katakrino, which means "to give a sentence against", "to condemn," "to judge against," and in the passive, "to be judged."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

[θανάτῳ], [3 verses] (noun sg masc dat) "To death" is thanatos, which means "death" "kinds of death," specifically, "violent death", "corpse," and "a death sentence." --

KJV Analysis: 

Behold, - "Behold" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways.

we -- This is from the first-person, plural form of the verb.

go  - "Go" is from a verb that means "go up", "shoot up," and "ascend." It is also a word that means "ascending to higher knowledge." The root word means, "step."

up -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "from bottom to top."

to -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

Jerusalem;  - Jerusalem is the name of the city. The word "Jerusalem" denotes the city or its inhabitants. Since it is Aramaic, different spellings are used in Greek. Two different forms of this word appear in the NT. It is only used once in Mark, but not in Jesus's words. It isn't used at all in John.  It appears three times in  Jesus's words in Matthew. This version is used most heavily in Luke, mostly in his narration, but a few times in Jesus's words. It seems to be the more formally Greek version of the name.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

betrayed  - (CW) "Betrayed" is from a compound word that literally means "to give over." It is usually translated as "delivered up" or "handed over." The root of the word is the common word "give." The concept of "being betrayed" doesn't necessarily involve physically handing someone over as this word does.

unto -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

chief priests  - "Chief priests" is from a word that means "arch-priest", "high priest," and "chief priest."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

unto  -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

scribes,  - "Scribes" is from a word that generally means a "secretary", "registrar", "recorder," and "scholar." It is used something like we use the word "intellectuals."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

condemn  - (CW) "Condemn" is from a verb that means which means "to decide against", "to give a sentence against", "to condemn," "to judge against," and in the passive, "to be judged." The word means literally to "judge down."  The root of the word is "judge." It is a more legalistic term than the general idea of "condemn,"

him  - -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.
death,  - "Death" is from the Greek word meaning "death" generally and the death penalty specifically. However, it doesn't appear in all good Greek sources.

KJV Translation Issues: 

3
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "betrayed" is from a root word meaning "give."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "condemn" is from a root word meaning "judge."

NIV Analysis: 

missing "look"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways.

We -- This is from the first-person, plural form of the verb.

are  -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb..

going - "Going" is from a verb that means "go up", "shoot up," and "ascend." It is also a word that means "ascending to higher knowledge." The root word means, "step."

up -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "from bottom to top."

to -- The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

Jerusalem;  - Jerusalem is the name of the city. The word "Jerusalem" denotes the city or its inhabitants. Since it is Aramaic, different spellings are used in Greek. Two different forms of this word appear in the NT. It is only used once in Mark, but not in Jesus's words. It isn't used at all in John.  It appears three times in  Jesus's words in Matthew. This version is used most heavily in Luke, mostly in his narration, but a few times in Jesus's words. It seems to be the more formally Greek version of the name.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

delivered - "Delivered " is from a compound word that literally means "to give over." It is usually translated as "delivered up" or "handed over." The root of the word is the common word "give."

over -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

chief priests  - "Chief priests" is from a word that means "arch-priest", "high priest," and "chief priest."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

unto  -- This word "unto" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

teachers ,  -  (WW) "Teachers " is from a word that generally means a "secretary", "registrar", "recorder," and "scholar." It is used something like we use the word "intellectuals."

of the law.   - -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "of the law" in the Greek source.

missing "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

They -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

condemn  - (CW) "Condemn" is from a verb that means which means "to decide against", "to give a sentence against", "to condemn," "to judge against," and in the passive, "to be judged." The word means literally to "judge down."  The root of the word is "judge." It is a more legalistic term than the general idea of "condemn,"

him  - -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.
death,  - "Death" is from the Greek word meaning "death" generally and the death penalty specifically. However, it doesn't appear in all good Greek sources.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "look" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "teachers" should be "writers."
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "of the law" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "condemn" is from a root word meaning "judge."

Front Page Date: 

May 21 2021