Matthew 22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry,

Spoken to: 

The Sadducees

Context: 

Jesus is asked about the resurrection and a woman who was married to multiple brothers.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Because in this awakening, neither do they marry nor accustom themselves to marriage. Instead, just as the messengers in the sky, they are.

My Takeaway: 

Being awakened and being in the sky is a state we are in.

KJV : 

Matthew 22:30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.

NIV : 

Matthew 22:30 At the resurrection people will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

More modern translations seek to make it look as though "the resurrection" is a future point in time. This was also the assumption of the Sadducees, who used the future tense in their question. However, Jesus's answer is not the future tense, but the present tense, not "will marry," but "marry," not "will be" but "are." From his perspective, this is something that is happening now, not in the future. This is a key point of the following verse, Matthew 22:31.

There is a parallel here between "in the resurrection" and "in heaven," that is lost in translation. The two phrases are closer in meaning to "in the awakening" and "in the sky." The use of the same preposition seems to indicate that being "in" these two states is similar.

However, the verse ends in a way that is surprising. While the normal word order in Greek puts the verb last, the particular verb that ends the verse is the verb "to be" which seems to want to be asking for another adjective or noun to describe those angels. The actual clause looks like this: "Instead, just as the messengers in the sky, they are." "Angels" is in the form of a subject,  which is more difficult to connect to the "they" of the "marry verbs because the "just as" conjunction/adverb comes between them. However, the surprise is that, in the end, people are being equated to the angels.

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "given in marriage" is a combination of the word for "marriage" with another word.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," and "with." Referring to time, it means. "in the course of" or "during." 

γὰρ [205 verses](partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for," "since," and "as." In an abrupt question it means "why" and "what."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀναστάσει [7 verses](noun sg fem dat) "Resurrection" is anastasis, which means, "a standing up," "removal," "a rising up," "a setting up," and "rising from a seat." It is the noun form of anistêmi, which means "to make stand up," "to raise," "to wake up," "to build up," "to restore," "to rouse to action," "to stir up," and "to make people rise."

οὔτε [12 verses](partic) "Neither" is oute, which means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

γαμοῦσιν [12 verses](verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Marry" is gameo, which mean "to marry" and "to take a wife." For a woman, it means "to give yourself in marriage." It can also mean to "take a lover.

οὔτε [12 verses](partic) "Nor" is from oute, which means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

γαμίζονται, [6 verses](verb 3rd pl pres ind mp) "Given in marriage" is gamizo, which mean "to give a daughter in marriage."

ἀλλ᾽ [154 verses](conj)  "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise," "but," "still," "at least," "except," "yet," nevertheless," "rather," "moreover," and "nay."

ὡς (adv/conj) "How" is hos, an adverb which means to "thus," "as," "how," "when," "where," "like," "just as," "so far as," "as much as can be," "that," "in order that," "nearly (with numbers)," and "know that."

ἄγγελοι [25 verses](noun pl masc nom) "Angels" is from aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use.

ἐν (prep) "In" is from en, which means "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," and "with." -- The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

τῷ (article sg masc dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

οὐρανῷ [111 verses](noun sg masc dat) "Heaven" is from the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky," "heaven as the seat of the gods," "the sky," "the universe," and "the climate."

εἰσίν: [614 verses](verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Are" is from eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," and "is possible."

KJV Analysis: 

For  - The word translated as "for" can be treated as supporting a dependent clause, or, in written English, as "this is because..." to start a new sentence.

in  - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

resurrection  - (CW) While the Greek word translated as "resurrection" is understood in one way today, during Jesus's time, it would have meant simply "a rising up" or "awakening." It was used to indicate someone standing up especially when awakening from sleep.

they  - -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

neither  - -- "Neither" is a Greek conjunction that means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

marry,  - The word translated as "marry" means, for a man, "to take a wife" and for a woman, to "give yourself in marriage." This second meaning is interesting because of the other verb used. It is in the form used, it has the first meaning, "they marry."

nor -- "Neither" is a Greek conjunction that means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

are  - -- This helping verb "are" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

given in marriage,  - The verb translated as "given in marriage" is used nowhere else in Greek besides the NT. It is from the same root as the above "marry," the Greek noun that means "wedding."  The form is passive "to be made to marry." Jesus used it six times.

but  - (CW) The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

are  - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." This verb is the final word in the Greek verse, acting as a punchline, something unexpected by his listeners.

as  - The word translated as "as" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how," "when," "where," "just as," "like," and related words.

the  - -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

angels  - "Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

of God -- -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "of God" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

in   - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

heaven.  - The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article.

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "resurrection" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" is not the more common word usually translated as "but."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "of God" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

missing "because"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "because" can be treated as supporting a dependent clause, or, in written English, as "this is because..." to start a new sentence.

At   - (WW) The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among." Referring to time, it means. "in the course of" or "during."

the  - -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

resurrection  - (CW) While the Greek word translated as "resurrection" is understood in one way today, during Jesus's time, it would have meant simply "a rising up" or "awakening." It was used to indicate someone standing up especially when awakening from sleep.

people - --  (WW) This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb, so "they."

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future.

neither  - -- "Neither" is a Greek conjunction that means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

marry,  - The word translated as "marry" means, for a man, "to take a wife" and for a woman, to "give yourself in marriage." This second meaning is interesting because of the other verb used. It is in the form used, it has the first meaning, "they marry."

nor -- "Neither" is a Greek conjunction that means "and not," and "neither/nor" when used in a series.

be - -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

given in marriage,  - The verb translated as "given in marriage" is used nowhere else in Greek besides the NT. It is from the same root as the above "marry," the Greek noun that means "wedding."  The form is passive "to be made to marry." Jesus used it six times.

missing "instead"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "instead" denotes an exception or simple opposition. "Still" or "however" work well when the word isn't being used as a conjunction, especially when it begins a sentence.

they  - -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future.

be - -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." This verb is the final word in the Greek verse, acting as a punchline, something unexpected by his listeners.

like - The word translated as "like" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how," "when," "where," "just as," "like," and related words.

the  - -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source.

angels  - "Angels" is from a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

in   - The word translated as "in" also means "within," "with," or "among."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

heaven.  - The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article.

NIV Translation Issues: 

10
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "because" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "at" should be "during."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "resurrection" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "people" should be "they."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" indicates the future tense, but that is not the tense here.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" is not the more common word usually translated as "but."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "instead" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" indicates the future tense, but that is not the tense here.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Jul 13 2021