Matthew 26:31 All you shall be offended because of me this night:

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

After the Last Supper and going up to Mt. Olive.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

All, you yourselves,  are going to trip on me in this night. Because it has been written, "I am going to strike the shepherd and they are going to be scattered, the animals of the flock."

My Takeaway: 

The implication of using this quote is that it is the sword of the Divine that is killing Jesus. This is why Jesus says his followers will "trip on" him.

KJV : 

Matthew 26:31 All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad.

NIV : 

Matthew 26:31 “This very night you will all fall away on account of me, for it is written: “ ‘I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.’[fn]

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This is a very unusual verse. As noted throughout these articles, Jesus usually quotes the Old Testament often in the exact Greek used in the Septuagint or nearly so. The quote here is a reference to Zecharia 13:7. However, he uses a different vocabulary and changes the quote a bit. Two words here, "smite" and "flock" are only used by Jesus twice. The Greek word translated as "smite" appears in the original OT Greek quote, but the word for "flock" doesn't.

In the original OT quote, both the verbs "smite" and "scatter" were commands that the Lord gives to his sword toward his enemies.

The Greek word translated as "scatter" in this quote is a different word in the Septuagint is in a different form than the one here. It was a command to the sword. Here, it is passive and describes what happens to the sheep. The word here was used earlier in Matthew 25:24. In the Greek version of the OT (Septuagint), this is a very different Greek word that means "to draw out," "remove by force," or, in modern Greek, "to break." However, this word is much closer to the meaning of the source Hebrew word. which means "to scatter abroad" and "to shatter."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Πάντες [212 verses](adj pl masc nom) "All" is from pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." --

ὑμεῖς [92 verses](pron 2nd pl nom) "Ye" is from hymeis (humeis), which are the singular nominative form of the second person, "you."

σκανδαλισθήσεσθε [20 verses](verb 2nd pl fut ind pass) "Shall be offended" is from skandalizo, which means "to cause to stumble", "to give offense," and "to scandalize." --

ἐν [413 verses](prep)  "Because of" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ἐμοὶ [96 verses](pron 1st sg masc dat) "Me" is from emoi, which is 1st person,singular dative pronoun meaning "me' as the indirect object of a verb.

ἐν [413 verses](prep)  Untranslated " is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

τῇ [821 verses](article sg fem dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

νυκτὶ [11 verses] (noun sg fem dat) "Night" is from nyx, which means "night", "midnight", and is a metaphor for darkness.

ταύτῃ,[96 verses] (adj sg fem dat) "This" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these", "this", "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why." -- The "this" is from a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why." It is not typically used as an adjective.

γέγραπται [34 verses](verb 3rd sg perf ind mp) "It is written" is from grapho which means "to mark", "to express by written characters", "to write a letter", "to write down [a law]", "to proscribe", "to ordain", "to write for oneself", "to enroll oneself", "to draw signs", "to describe a figure" "to brand," and "to indict."

γὰρ [205 verses](partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what."

Πατάξω [2 verses](verb 1st sg fut ind act) "I will smite" is from patasso, which means "to beat", "to knock", "to strike," "smite", "slaughter", and "to afflict."

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ποιμένα, [8 verses](noun sg masc acc) "Shepherd" is poimen, which means "herdsmen", "shepherd," and, generally, "captain," and "chief."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

διασκορπισθήσονται [6 verses] (verb 3rd pl fut ind pass) "Shall be scattered abroad" is from diaskorpizo, which means literally, to "scatter among" or "disperse among", and "to scatter abroad". In the passive, it means "to squander", "to confound," and "to winnow." The source Hebrew word is puwts which means "to scatter abroad" and "to shatter."

τὰ [821 verses](article pl neut nom/acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πρόβατα [26 verses](noun pl neut nom/acc) "Sheep" is from probaton, which means any domesticated four-footed animal, "sheep", "cattle", "herds," and "flocks. --

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ποίμνης:” [2 verses](noun sg fem gen) "Flock" is from poimne, which means "flock" specifically of sheep.

KJV Analysis: 

All  -  - The word translated as "all" is from the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

ye  - (MW) The pronoun "ye" is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use here creates emphasis on the "you" as we say "your yourselves." Without the "yourselves," this emphasis is lost.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

offended  - - The keyword here, translated as "offended" is a "Greek" word that is found only in the Bible. It refers to putting a stumbling block before someone to trip them up and thereby offending them. In English, we would simply say, "trips you up." Though it doesn't sound like it in English translation, Christ uses this word to make light of his effect on the thinking of others. It is plural, future, passive.

because of -  (WW) The word translated as "because of" means "in", "on", "by". "within", "with," or "among." Here it means "on."  It doesn't mean "because of", that is, offering a cause. This word works because people trip "on" things.

me -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

missing "in"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "in" is used again before the "this night," but isn't translated in this KJV.

this -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

night:  - -- "Night"  is the noun that means "night," "midnight," and is a metaphor for darkness. --

for  --The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why." However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "consequently" or "as a cause." 

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

is -- (WT) This helping verb "is" indicates that the following verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the tense here is the past perfect, so "has been."

written -- "Written" is a verb that means "to mark," "to express by written characters," and "to write down [a law]."  The verb is passive, completed in the past, "it has been written."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

smite  - - The "smite" is translated from a Greek word that "to beat", "to knock", "to strike," "smite", "slaughter", and "to afflict." In the OT quote, it is a command but the command is given by the Lord to his sword.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

shepherd,  - The word "shepherd" is the standard word that Jesus uses for a shepherd.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sheep  - - The word for "sheep" is a word that applies to any domesticated herd animal, which is probably why Christ adds the word translated adds "of the flock" because the word translated as "flock" specifically refers to sheep.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. 

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

flock  -  The word translated as "flock" is from the same root as "shepherd" and "sheep" so it is more like our word "sheepfold."

shall  - -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

scattered  - The word used for "scatter" also means "to scatter among", "to disperse among" and "to winnow," which is separating the wheat from the straw.

abroad.- This word is from the prefix of the verb which can mean "beyond."

KJV Translation Issues: 

4
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "yourself" after "you" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "because of" should be "in."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "in" before "night" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "night" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "is" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "has been."

NIV Analysis: 

missing "in"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "in" is used again before the "this night," but isn't translated in this KJV.

This -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

very -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "very" in the Greek source.

night:  - -- "Night"  is the noun that means "night," "midnight," and is a metaphor for darkness. --

you - (MW) The pronoun "you" is used explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since it is already part of the verb, its use here creates emphasis on the "you" as we say "your yourselves." Without the "yourselves," this emphasis is lost.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

all  -  - The word translated as "all" is from the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

fall away- - (WW, WV) The keyword here, translated as "fall away" is a "Greek" word that is found only in the Bible. It refers to putting a stumbling block before someone to trip them up and thereby offending them. In English, we would simply say, "trips you up." Though it doesn't sound like it in English translation, Christ uses this word to make light of his effect on the thinking of others. It is plural, future, passive. This verb is active, not passive.

on account of -  (WW) The word translated as "because of" means "in", "on", "by". "within", "with," or "among." Here it means "on."  It doesn't really mean "on account of", that is, offering a cause, which is a different, common word in Greek. This word works because people trip "on" things.

me -- "Me" is from the regular first-person pronoun in Greek.

for  --The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why." However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "consequently" or "as a cause." 

it -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

is -- (WT) This helping verb "is" indicates that the following verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the tense here is the past perfect, so "has been."

written -- "Written" is a verb that means "to mark," "to express by written characters," and "to write down [a law]."  The verb is passive, completed in the past, "it has been written."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

strike - - The "strike " is translated from a Greek word that "to beat", "to knock", "to strike," "smite", "slaughter", and "to afflict." In the OT quote, it is a command but the command is given by the Lord to his sword.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

shepherd,  - The word "shepherd" is the standard word that Jesus uses for a shepherd.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

sheep  - - The word for "sheep" is a word that applies to any domesticated herd animal, which is probably why Christ adds the word translated adds "of the flock" because the word translated as "flock" specifically refers to sheep.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. 

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

flock  -  The word translated as "flock" is from the same root as "shepherd" and "sheep" so it is more like our word "sheepfold."

will - -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

scattered  - The word used for "scatter" also means "to scatter among", "to disperse among" and "to winnow," which is separating the wheat from the straw.

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "in" before "night" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "night" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "yourself" after "you" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "fall away" should be "tripped up."
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "fall away" is translated as active but it is passive.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "on account" should be "in."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "is" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "has been."

Front Page Date: 

Dec 17 2021