Matthew 26:45 Sleep on now, and take [your] rest:

Spoken to: 

group

Context: 

In the Garden of Gethsemane when Jesus returns the third time to find Peter, James, and John sleeping.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Lie down to sleep in the future and rest. Look, the time is nearly here. And the son of the man is giving himself over into the hands of those erring.

My Takeaway: 

We can put off sleep and sleep later.

KJV : 

Matthew 26:45 Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

NIV : 

Matthew 26:45 “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour has come, and the Son of Man is delivered into the hands of sinners.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Biblical translations do not fit the Greek or what Jesus says in the next verse. He does not say they should keep sleeping but sleep later. This is one of those verses that is much more serious in translation than in the Greek. It has several hallmarks of Christ's use of humor. In this case, making light of something very serious. Jesus could say that he is being turned himself over to authorities, of, most accurately turning himself over.

These are the words of a hero. They could have been written by Shakespeare. This is so dramatic: the hero knows that his death is coming but bids his friends sleep on. I almost hate to get into any other meaning because the drama is so perfect.

Before this, Jesus had found his disciples asleep and gone back to praying as before without waking them. The text says, "praying as before" indicating that for the third time he expressed his regret at dying (this time in private) but his acceptance of the Father's will.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

Καθεύδετε [12 verses] (verb 2nd pl pres imperat act or verb 2nd pl pres ind act) "Sleep on" is from katheudo, which means "to lie down to sleep", "to sleep," and "to lie asleep."

λοιπὸν [2 verses](adj sg neut acc) "Now" is from loipon, which means "remaining over", "descendants", "what remains", and of time "the future", "henceforth", and "hereafter."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀναπαύεσθε: [5 verses](verb 2nd pl pres imperat mp or verb 2nd pl pres ind mp) "Take your rest" is from anapauo, which means "to make to cease", "stop or hinder", "put an end to," "to relieve from,""bring to a close", "take rest", "sleep", "lie fallow", "regain strength," and "rest or settle [on an object]."

ἰδοὺ [52 verses](adv, verb 2nd sg aor imperat mid)"Behold is from idou, which means "to behold", "to see," and "to perceive." It acts as an adverbial phrase in this form meaning "Lo! Behold!" and "See there!' It is a form of the verb eido, which means "to see."

ἤγγικεν [17 verses](verb 3rd sg perf ind act) "Is at hand" is from eggizo, which means "to bring near", "to join one things to another," to draw near," and "to approach." This word does not appear in the Perseus dictionary. It comes from an adverb ἐγγύς, eggus, which means 1) (of place) "near", "nigh", "at hand," 2) (of time) "nigh at hand" 3) (of numbers) "nearly", "almost", "coming near," and 4) (of relationship) "akin to."

[821 verses](article sg fem nom) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ὥρα,  [37 verses](noun sg fem nom) "The hour" is hora, which means "any period", "season," (especially springtime), "year' (generally), "climate" (as determined by seasons), "duration", "the twelve equal parts into which the period of daylight was divided", "the fitting time" (for a task). --

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

[821 verses] (article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

υἱὸς [157 verses](noun sg masc nom) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child."

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀνθρώπου [209 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

παραδίδοται [43 verses](verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "Is betrayed" is from paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

χεῖρας [25 verses] (noun pl fem acc) "Hands" is cheir which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful."

ἁμαρτωλῶν. . [15 verses](noun pl fem gen) "Sinners" is from hamartolos, which means "erroneous" or "erring." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil.

KJV Analysis: 

Sleep -- The "sleep on" here is a verb that means "to lie down to sleep" and, generally, "to sleep." The prefix of the word means "down."

on --  (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "on" in the Greek source. It is not justified by the prefix of the verb.

now, (WW) The word translated as "now" means "the remains" normally and "the future" when referring to time. The sense is "hereafter" not "now. However, it is also a very rare word for Jesus. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

take -- The verb translated as "take your rest" means "to make to cease", " bring to a close", and "take rest". The word also means "sleep" but that would be redundant here.

your -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

rest: Though not a part of the verb, this is clearly implied by the verb.

behold, =- "Behold" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways. This verb is also in a form that indicates something happening at a point in time.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

hour -- The word translated as "hour" means a period of time, generally, as we might say "moment." It has an article so "the hour" or "this hour." It is in the form of a subject, so it is a subject of the  next verb, which is follows in the Greek, and possible the prior verb, "holds off."

is -- (WT) This "is" does not indicate the present tense. The following verb would sound more like the future tense. Since the previous verb was the present, the change in this verb to "a point in time" would indicate the future.

at hand,  - The word translated as "is at hand" is another word that appears for the first time in the NT. It is the verb form of the adverb "near" in space, time, and relationships. In English, we would say "nears" or, in the form here, "has neared," doesn't quite work so perhaps "has gotten close" or, in the case of time, "is nearly here."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This verb also represents a change back to the present tense.

betrayed -- (WW)  "Betrayed" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It has nothing to do with "betray." The form could be passive, but it could also be a middle form where the subject act on himself. Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

hands Like "hands" in English, the Greek word has a lot of meanings including the physical hand, including the forearm, and someone's control.

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more

sinners. -- (WW) "sinners" is a noun from an adjective that means "erroneous" or "erring", so "the erring" or "those who make mistakes." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Most of the shades of meaning in our word "sin" come from religious teaching after Jesus. More about the translation issues regarding the word "sin" in this article.

KJV Translation Issues: 

8
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "on" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "now" means "hereafter."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The "enough" means either "keep from" or "have from."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "is" seems to indicate an action in the present, but the tense is something happening at a point in time past, present, or future. 
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "betrayed" means "give over."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sinners" is an adjective, "erring."

NIV Analysis: 

“Are -- This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

still  -- (WW) The word translated as "still" means "the remains" normally and "the future" when referring to time. The sense is "hereafter" not now. However, it is also a very rare word for Jesus. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect. However, it is also a very rare word for Christ. Jesus often uses rare words for humorous effect.

sleeping -- The "sleep" ing here is a verb that means "to lie down to sleep" and, generally, "to sleep." The prefix of the word means "down."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

resting? -- The verb translated as "rest" means "to make to cease", " bring to a close", and "take rest". The word also means "sleep" but that would be redundant here.

Look, -- "Look" is a verbal command meaning "See!" and "Look!" It is from the most common word meaning "to see" in Greek. In a humorous vein, it is also an adverbial exclamation like we use the phrase "tah-dah" in a magic show, or "voila" in French. "Look!" or "See!" comes closest in English. Jesus uses it both ways. This verb is also in a form that indicates something happening at a point in time.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

hour -- The word translated as "hour" means a period of time, generally, as we might say "moment." It has an article so "the hour" or "this hour." It is in the form of a subject, so it is a subject of the  next verb, which is follows in the Greek, and possible the prior verb, "holds off."

has -  This "has" does not indicate the present tense. The following verb would sound more like the future tense. Since the previous verb was the present, the change in this verb to "a point in time" would indicate the future.

come - (WW) The word translated as "come" is the verb form of the adverb "near" in space, time, and relationships. In English, we would say "nears" or, in the form here, "has neared," doesn't quite work so perhaps "has gotten close" or, in the case of time, "is nearly here."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant". The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

man - The Greek word for "man" means "man", "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men", "people", and "peoples". 

is -- This helping verb "is" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This verb also represents a change back to the present tense.

delivered --  "Delivered" is a compound word that literally means "to give over." It has nothing to do with "betray." The form could be passive, but it could also be a middle form where the subject act on himself. Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."Literally, "he is giving himself over," but we would say "he is turning himself in."

into -- The word translated as "unto" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

hands Like "hands" in English, the Greek word has a lot of meanings including the physical hand, including the forearm, and someone's control.

of  -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more

sinners. -- (WW) "sinners" is a noun from an adjective that means "erroneous" or "erring", so "the erring" or "those who make mistakes." It also means "of bad character" but with the sense of being a slave or low-born not evil. Most of the shades of meaning in our word "sin" come from religious teaching after Jesus. More about the translation issues regarding the word "sin" in this article.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "on" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "still" means "hereafter."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "come" means "neared."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "man" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "sinners" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "sinners" is an adjective, "erring." -

Front Page Date: 

Dec 26 2021