Matthew 28:19 Go you therefore, and teach all nations...

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

Jesus appears to disciples on a mountain in Galilee

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Departing then, make disciples of all people, dipping them in the name of the Father, Son, and the Sacred Breath of Life.

My Takeaway: 

We are meant to be students.

KJV : 

Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

NIV : 

Matthew 28:19 Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The word translated incorrectly in the KJV as "teach" and correctly in the NIV as "make disciples of" is rare for Jesus, appearing only here. Notice, he doesn't instruct them to convert or make believers of all people, but to make students of them. The word "disciple" does not mean believer but simply a student. We are meant to be learners first and foremost.

The word translated as "baptizing" is also somewhat rare. It means "to dunk" or "to dip."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

πορευθέντες [54 verses](part pl aor pass masc nom) "Go ye" is from poreuomai (poreuô) which means "make to go", "carry", "convey", "bring", "go", "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT.

οὖν [82 verses](adv) "Therefore" is from oun, which means "certainly", "in fact", "really", "in fact," "so" and "then" (continuing a narrative), and "then" and "therefore."

μαθητεύσατε [2 verses](verb 2nd pl aor imperat act) "And teach" is from matheteuo, which means "to be a pupil," "make a disciple of", and "instruct."

πάντα[212 verses](adj pl neut acc) "All" is from pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether."

τὰ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἔθνη, [22 verses] (noun pl neut acc) "Nations" is from ethnos, which means "a number of people living together", "company", "body of men," "tribe", "a people", "nation," and (later) "foreign, barbarous nations."

βαπτίζοντες [8 verses] (part pl pres act masc nom) "Baptizing" is baptizo, which means "to dip", "to plunge", "to be drenched", "to be drowned," and "getting in deep water."

αὐτοὺς [720 verses] (adj pl masc acc) "Them" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "In" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸ [821 verses](article sg neut acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ὄνομα [47 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Name" is from onoma, which means "name." It means both the reputation of "fame," and "a name and nothing else," as opposed to a real person. Acting in someone's name means to act on their behalf, as their representative.

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

πατρὸς [191 verses](noun sg masc gen) "The Father" is from pater, which means "father", "grandfather", "author", "parent," and "forefathers." --

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

υἱοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "The Son" is from huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg neut gen)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἁγίου ,[18 verses](adj sg neut gen) "Holy" is from hagios, which means "devoted to the gods", "pure", "holy," and on the negative side "accursed."

πνεύματος, [40 verses] -  -  (noun sg neut gen) "Spirit" is pneuma, which means "blast", "wind", "breath", "the breath of life", "divine inspiration", "a spiritual or immaterial being," and "the spirit" of a man.

KJV Analysis: 

Go  - (WF) The Greek verb translated as "go ye" isn't the common verb almost always translated as "go" in the NT. This word means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Christ uses it to say "get away" when followed by "from me." Here, it is not a command or even an active verb, it is an adjective, describing those he is addressing, "departing."

ye -- (IW) The verb is not in the second-person so this is inserted.

therefore,  -  - The Greek word translated as "therefore" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative.

and  - (IW) There is no "and" here. It is added because the "go" above is treated like a command, which is isn't.

teach  - (CW)  "Teach" is from a verb that means "to be a pupil" or "to make a disciple of." It is in the form of a command. It is not the common word for teach. Jesus only uses this word three times.

all  - - The word translated as "all" is from the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

nations,  - "Nations" is from the Greek word that is normally translated means "a number of people living together", "caste", "tribe" or "nation," and implies a foreign group. It is almost always translated as "Gentiles" in the New Testament.

baptizing  - The Greek word translated as "baptize" means "to dip", "to plunge", "to be drenched", "to be drowned," and "getting in deep water." It is in the form of an adjective, baptizing."

them  -  -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

in  - The word translated as "in" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

name  - - The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Father,  - - "Father" is the common word that Christ uses to address his own Father, though it can mean any male ancestor. When referring to others, Christ uses it to refer to their ancestors, that is, "forefathers."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Son,  - The word translated as "son" more generally means "child." It refers to all offspring in later generations, just like "father" refers to all previous generations. Christ also used it metaphorically to describe those that follow a way of thought or set of beliefs that descend from an individual. More about it in this article.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Holy - -  "Holy" is from an adjective that means "devoted to the gods", "pure", "holy," and on the negative side "accursed."

Ghost:  - The word translated as "spirit" has been used in the section to mean "non-material beings" but it primarily means "breath", "wind," and "blast." \ Like "spirit" in English, it can also mean "attitude" or "motivation.' It also means the "breath of life," from which we get to "spirit" and "spiritual." It also means the "breath of life," from which we get to "spirit" and "spiritual." Its meaning as "the breath of life" is brought out by the idea of creating life. Its meaning as "spiritual" is brought out by the contrast with "physical."

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "go" is not an active verb but a participle, "going."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "ye" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "teach" is not the common word usually translated as "teach."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "nations" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV Analysis: 

Therefore -  - The Greek word translated as "therefore" either emphasizes the truth of something ("certainly", "really") or it simply continues an existing narrative.

go - (WF) The Greek verb translated as "go ye" isn't the common verb almost always translated as "go" in the NT. This word means "to lead over", "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Christ uses it to say "get away" when followed by "from me." Here, it is not a command or even an active verb, it is an adjective, describing those he is addressing, "departing."

and  -- (IW) This word does not exist in the text. It is added because the previous verb was changed to an active verb.

and  - There is no "and" here. It is added because the "go" above is treated like a command, which is isn't.

make disciples of -  "Make disciples" is from a verb that means "to be a pupil" or "to make a disciple of." It is in the form of a command. It is not the common word for teach. Jesus only uses this word three times.

all  - - The word translated as "all" is from the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more.

nations,  - "Nations" is from the Greek word that is normally translated means "a number of people living together", "caste", "tribe" or "nation," and implies a foreign group. It is almost always translated as "Gentiles" in the New Testament.

baptizing  - The Greek word translated as "baptize" means "to dip", "to plunge", "to be drenched", "to be drowned," and "getting in deep water." It is in the form of an adjective, baptizing."

them  -  -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

in  - The word translated as "in" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

name  - - The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Father,  - - "Father" is the common word that Christ uses to address his own Father, though it can mean any male ancestor. When referring to others, Christ uses it to refer to their ancestors, that is, "forefathers."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Son,  - The word translated as "son" more generally means "child." It refers to all offspring in later generations, just like "father" refers to all previous generations. Christ also used it metaphorically to describe those that follow a way of thought or set of beliefs that descend from an individual. More about it in this article.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Holy - -  "Holy" is from an adjective that means "devoted to the gods", "pure", "holy," and on the negative side "accursed."

Ghost:  - The word translated as "spirit" has been used in the section to mean "non-material beings" but it primarily means "breath", "wind," and "blast." \ Like "spirit" in English, it can also mean "attitude" or "motivation.' It also means the "breath of life," from which we get to "spirit" and "spiritual." It also means the "breath of life," from which we get to "spirit" and "spiritual." Its meaning as "the breath of life" is brought out by the idea of creating life. Its meaning as "spiritual" is brought out by the contrast with "physical."

NIV Translation Issues: 

3
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "go" is not an active verb but a participle, "going."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "nations" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Jan 9 2022