Luke 6:4 How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat

KJV Verse: 

Luke 6:4 How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him; which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

When he entered into the house of the Divine and the bread of the display getting, he consumed and gave to those with him these that it was not allowed to eat except only the priests. 

Hidden Meaning: 

 In most modern translations, the bread here is described as "sacred" or "consecrated", but the Greek word describing it means that it was "for show." The parallel verses in Mark 2:26 and Matthew 12:4 are phrased differently but 

The word translated as "how" here means "as" or "when". The Matthew 12:4 Greek does start with the Greek word usually translated as "how" to this translation makes them seem more similar. This word does not appear in all Greek versions. 

"He went" is a word that means "go or come into" and has the double meaning of "coming into one's mind." In Matthew, the same word in the same form is translated as "entered". 

The Greek word translated as "house," is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house. It means the household or clan that lives in the building as well.

The word translated as "of God" means "God" and "diety." It is introduced with an article, so "the God" or "the Divine". Christ often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

The phrase "did take" primarily means "take", but it also means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. Among these are the ideas of "understanding" and "possessing." It is an adjective, "getting". This word is not in the Matthew or Mark versions. 

There is no "and" to join the "take" and "eat". 

The word translated as "eat" means "eat" and "devour" but it also means "fret," as we say "something is eating me up."

"Shewbread" is from two Greek words meaning "loaves of offering" and refers to the twelve loaves representing the twelve tribes of Israel that was set out before the sanctuary for a week every week. The word translated as "bread" means "small loaf or cake of bread". It is more like a slice of bread today. The word for "shew" is a word that means "placing in public", "public notice," or "offering."The verb translated as "gave" means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

There is no "also" in the Greek here. However, there is in the Greek for Mark 2:26.

"To them" is the Greek article, which acts something like our demonstrative, "to those". 

The word translated as "who" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the ones that") introducing a dependent clause. Here, the form means it refers to the "bread" not the "those" with him.  

"It is...lawful" is a verb that  means "it is possible" and "it is allowed." It generally refers to something within someone's power, or, in this case with the negative, something outside of someone's power.

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence to captures the same idea.

The word translated as "to eat" means "eat" and is the same above. 

The "but" here is two words meaning "if not," which is best translated as "except". 

The word translated a "the priests" is the noun that we translated as "priest" or "sacrificer" but it is also the noun form of the verb meaning "to consecrate" or "to dedicate" so "the ones consecrating" or "the ones dedicating."

The word translated as "alone" means alone,""solitary," and "only". In the Matthew version, the Greek word appears after "the priests", but here it appears before so "only the priests". 

The Spoken Version: 

When he entered into the house of the Divine and, getting the bread of the display, he consumed and gave to those with him these which was not allowed to eat except only the priests. 

Vocabulary: 

πῶς (adv) "How" is hos, an adverb which means to "thus", "as", "how", "when", "where", "like", "just as", "so far as", "as much as can be", "that", "in order that", "nearly (with numbers)," and "know that." -- The word translated as "as" has a very broad meaning, translating as "how", "when", "where", "just as", "like," and related words.

εἰσῆλθεν  (3rd sg aor ind act ) "He entered into" is from eiserchomai which means both "to go into", "to come in", "to enter", "to enter an office", "to enter a charge," (as in court) and "to come into one's mind."

εἰς  (perp) "Into" is from eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸν οἶκον (noun sg masc acc) "House" is from oikos, which means "house", "dwelling place", "room", "home", "meeting hall," "household goods", "substance," and "ruling family." It is any dwelling place but not exclusively a separate house.

τοῦ θεοῦ (noun sg masc gen) "Of God" is from theos, which means "God," the Deity."

καὶ (conj) "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τοὺς ἄρτους (noun pl masc acc) "The ...bread" is from artos, which means specifically a "cake of whole wheat bread," and generally "loaf," and "bread." It was smaller than loaves today, more like a bread roll.

τῆς προθέσεως”  (noun sg fem gen ) "Shew..." is prothesis, which means "placing in public", "public notice", "offering", "purpose", "end proposed", "goodwill", "supposition", "calculation", "prefixing", "placing first," and, in grammar, "preposition."

λαβὼν (part sg aor act masc nom) "Receiveth" is lambano means to "take", "take hold of", "grasp", "seize", "catch", "overtake", "find out", "detect", "take as", "take [food or drugs]", "understand", "take in hand", "undertake", "take in", "hold", "get", "receive [things]", "receive hospitably", "receive in marriage", "receive as produce", "profit", "admit", "initiate", "take hold of", "lay hold on", "seize and keep hold of", "obtain possession of", "lay hands upon", "find fault with", "censure," "to apprehend with the senses", "to take hold of," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

ἔφαγεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Eat" is from esthio, which means "to eat", "devour", "consume", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

καὶ "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἔδωκεν (verb 3rd sg aor ind act) "Gave" is didomi, which means "to give", "to grant", "to hand over", "appoint", "establish," and "to describe." 

τοῖς (article pl masc dat )"To them" is the Greek article, "the," which usually proceeds a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one"or , in the plural, "they."

μετ᾽ (prep) "With" is from meta, which means "in the midst of", "among", "between", "in common", "along with", "by the aid of", "in one's dealings with", "into the middle of," "coming into", "in pursuit of", "after", "behind", "according to," and "next afterward"

αὐτοῦ, (adj sg masc gen ) "Him" is from autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of ones own accord."

οὓς (pron pl masc acc) "Which" is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

οὐκ  (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both singles words and sentences. 

ἔξεστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "It is lawful" is exesti, which means "to be allowed", "is possible," and, in the passive, "to be in one's power."

φαγεῖν (aor inf act) "To eat" is from esthio, which means "to eat", "devour", "consume", "fret", "vex," and to "take in one's mouth." It is also a metaphor for decay and erosion.

εἰ μὴ (conj-part) "But" is from ei me, which is the conjunction that means "if not", "but," and "except." εἰis the particle use with the imperative usually to express conditions "if" or indirect questions, "whether." The negative (me) is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no."

μόνους  (adj pl masc dat) "Only" is from monos, which means "alone,""solitary," "only," "single," "unique," "made in one piece," "without [someone]," "only [something]", "unique", "one above all others," and "on one condition only."

τοὺς ἱερεῖς; (noun pl masc acc  ) "Priest" is hiereus, which means a "priest", "sacrificer", "diviner" and is a metaphor for a "minister." It is also a verb meaning "to consecrate" or "to dedicated" in the form of a present participle so "the ones consecrating" or "the ones dedicating."

Related Verses: 

Sep 10 2017