John 14:17 [Even] the Spirit of truth;

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

The life breath of unveiling who the world order lacks the power to apprehend with their senses because they neither observe nor know [it] by contemplation. You know know this [spirit] by contemplation of what might beyond you is within you.

KJV : 

Jhn 14:17 [Even] the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it sees him not, neither knows him: but you know him; for he dwells with you, and shall be in you.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Now this gets interesting, with a lot of hidden meanings coming together.

I render pneuma , which is translated as "spirit", in the "life breath" because that is its more precise meaning. As we discussed earlier, Jhn 14:6 I am the way, the Greek word for truth means literally "not hidden", which I render here as the more poetic, "unveiling." I should point out that the Greek concept of truth was that it was defined by its opposition to that which is concealed. This goes back to the Greek diamonia, a daughter of Zues, Aletheia, whose opposites were Dolos (Trickery), Apate (Deception) and the Pseudologoi (Lies).

This breath of truth describes what Christian tradition recognizes as the Holy Spirit. Here, Christ is describing this spirit as the force that reveals the truth.

The "world" Christ refers to here is not the Greek word for earth, ge, or another word that means "age" or "lifetime" that often gets translated as "world" in the NT, aion. It is kosmos, which means the "world order". Christ uses this word to refer to earthly rulers and authorities.

These rules lack the power to perceive the spirit of truth because they cannot see it but the word for "see" is not one that has been used usually in the Gospels and not the one that John used earlier in this series of verses. It is a verb that has the sense of watching a spectacle. It originally came from going to see the oracle, which explains its prefix "theo", meaning "god." This captures the idea that the spirit of truth isn't like the Greek oracles, a big show, but something that we can only perceive by contemplation.

This brings us to that last section, which I render quite differently than the original, not because the original is wrong, but because I want to bring out other shades of meaning here. As I also pointed out earlier, (Jhn 14:10 Believest thou not that I am in the Father), the word translated as "dwells" is also the noun that means "might" or "force." It comes originally from the holding or staying power of an army not being driven from the battlefield. This idea of "stays" get transformed (in the NT, anyway) to "dwells." I render this idea as the "might beside you" because, again, this is the more literal translation of the concepts.

The last phrase in the KJV original, "shall be in you," isn't written in the Greek in the future tense. It is in the present tense. John is saying that this breath of revealing is already in us, coming from the might beside us. this is echoing what Christ said about the Father being in him and he in the Father. The bit of God we have within us is the spirit of revealing, that helps us see what is true. What forces besides ourselves is within us? A spark from God to see the truth.

I would have broken the ideas here into more, shorter sentences if I could. As you may know, ancient Greek was written without punctuation or spaces between words, so the division we make into words and sentences are somewhat arbitrary.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

πνεῦμα "Spirit" is pneuma (pneuma), which means "blast", "wind", "breath", "the breath of life," and "divine inspiration."

ἀληθείας "Truth" is from aletheia, which means literally "the state of not being hidden," means "truth" and "reality" as opposed to appearances.

"Who" is from hos (hos), which is the demonstrative pronoun in its various forms (hê, ho, gen. hou, hês, hou, etc. ; dat. pl. hois, hais, hois, etc. gen. hoou). It means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

κόσμος "World" is from kosmos, which mean "order", "good order", "ruler", "world order", "universe," and "the world of men." Matthew uses it when Christ is talking about the order in the universe, specifically the order of the world of men, as it is designed to be.

δύναται "Can" is from the verb, dunamai (dynamai), which means "to have power by virtue of your own capabilities", "to be able," and "to be strong enough."

λαβεῖν "Receive" is from lambanô (lambano) means "to take", "to receive", "to apprehend with the senses," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean seized with emotion.

ὅτι "Because" is from hoti (hoti), which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that" and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," and "wherefore." A form of hostis.

οὐ "Not" is from οὐ ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, class="greek">μή applies to will and thought; class="greek">οὐ denies, class="greek">μή rejects; class="greek">οὐ is absolute, class="greek">μήrelative; class="greek">οὐ objective, class="greek">μή subjective.

θεωρεῖ "Sees" is from theōreō (theoreo), which means "to see", "to look at", "to behold," (of the mind) "to contemplate", "to consider", "to observe (as a spectator)", "to gaze", "to gape", "to inspect (troops) and, in abstract, "to theorize" and "to speculate." It originally means literally, "to be sent to see an oracle."

αὐτὸ "Him" is from autos (autos), which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord."

οὐδὲ "Neither" is from oude, which means "but not", "neither", "nor,"and "not even."

γινώσκει and γινώσκετε "Know," is from gignôskô (ginosko) which means "to learn to know", "to know by reflection or observation," and "to perceive."

ὑμεῖς "You" is from ὑμεῖς hymeis, which are the singular nominative form of the second person, "you."

παρ "With" is from para (para), which means "beside", "from the side of", "from beside,", "from", "issuing from", "near", "by", "with", "along", "past", "beyond", "parallel (geometry)", "like (metaphor)", "a parody of (metaphor)", "precisely at the moment of (time)," and "throughout (time)."

μένει "Dwells" is from meno, which, as a noun, means "might," "force", "strength," fierceness," and "passion"; as a verb, it means "stand fast" (in battle), "stay at home", "stay", "tarry", "remain as one was", "abide", and (transitive) "await."

ἐστίν "Shall be" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible." It can also mean "must" with a dative. The form here is 3r, sg, present, not future.