Letter 2 Translation Notes

1. I added this verse from earlier in Matthew because it provides the context for the Sermon.

Matthew 4:17 Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

Μετανοεῖτε, ἤγγικεν γὰρ

Change your minds its having drawn near is the reason

ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν

the realm of the skies.

The “because” is out of order, gar (adv), which follows the first word of the phrase it introduces. The “of” is added because of the possessive form of “the skies”.

The first word, metanoeo (2nd pl pres imperat act), means “change your mind”. Its root word means “perceive by the mind”. The “it has gotten near” is from the verb, eggizo (3rd perf act sg ind) describing the action of something coming closer.

“Reign” is better than “realm” for basileia, but “reign of the skies” sounds like “rain of the skies”, so it doesn’t work. “Of the skies” works better than “of heaven” because ouranos (noun pl masc gen) means “sky”. The word is plural, and it is introduced by an article. Our idea of “heaven” didn’t exist in Christ’s time. “The sky” was generally seen as the everything in the universe outside of the earth. Why does Jesus use it in the plural? Perhaps to universalize it.

2. When I first translated these words, I immediately saw the humor, Jesus could only start with this if he wanted to surprise his audience.

Matthew 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι,

Lucky! Those beggars! for the breath of life!

ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία

The fact is that theirs is the realm

ῶν οὐρανῶν.

of the skies.

The “for” is added because the following word are a form that describe something “for” a benefit. Again, the “of” is added because of the possessive form of “the skies.”

The “lucky” is from makarios (adj pl masc nom), an adjective that means “fortunate”, not “blessed” in any religious sense. The “beggars” is the word, ptôchos, (adj pl masc nom) which an adjective describing a beggar but the preceding article makes it a noun. The “breath of life” is pneuma (noun sg neut dat), which primarily means “wind” or “breath”. It is used to describe the animating spirit in the sense of “breath of life”.

“The fact is” works for hoti (adv/conj) because it introduces a statement of fact. “Because” would work but that would confuse it with the earlier gar. Again, the “skies” is plural.

3. Matthew 5:4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.​

μακάριοι “οἱ πενθοῦντες,” ὅτι αὐτοὶ “παρακληθήσονται.”

“Lucky!” μακάριοι (adj pl masc nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“Those” “οἱ (art pl pres act masc nom) [those who] is ho.

“weeping in mourning” πενθοῦντες,” (part pl pres act masc nom) [mourn] is pentheo.


A verb that means “to bewail”, “to mourn”, “to go into mourning,” and “to lament.”

“Because” ὅτι (conj) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom) [they] is autos. See Glossary, page <?>.

“shall be called near” παρακληθήσονται.” (3rd pl fut ind pass) [will be comforted] is parakaleo.


A verb that means “call in”, “send for”, “invite,” “summon”, “address”, “demand”, “exhort”, “encouraged”, “excite”, “demand,” and “beseech.” It means literally “call closer.” The prefix, para, means “beside”, “from the side of”, “from beside,”, “from”, “issuing from”, “near”, “by”, “with”, “along”, “past”, “beyond” and so on. The based word , means “call”, “summon”, and “invite”.


Matthew 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

μακάριοι “οἱ πραεῖς,” ὅτι αὐτοὶ “κληρονομήσουσι τὴν γῆν.”

“Lucky!” μακάριοι (adj pl masc/fem nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“The” “οἱ,” (adj pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“soft ones!” “οἱ πραεῖς,” (adj pl masc nom) [meek] is praus.


An adjective that means “mild”, “soft”, “gentle”, “meek”, “making mild,” and “taming.” It describes both animals that are tame and those who tame them. When addressed to an individual (i.e. “gentle one”) it is a term of affection. When applied to an action, it describes a “caress.”

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc/fem nom) [they] is autos.

shall inherit κληρονομήσουσι (3rd pl fut ind act) [will inherit] is kleronomeo.


A verb that means “to inherit”, “to acquire”, “to receive possession of”, “to obtain”, “to be an heir,” and “to leave an heir behind.”

“The” τὴν” (art sg fem acc) [the] is ho.

“mother earth!” γῆν.” (noun sg fem acc) [earth] is gê.


that means “the element of earth”, “land (country)”, “arable land”, “the ground,” and “the world” as the opposite of the sky.


Matthew 5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσονται.

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc/fem nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“those” οἱ” (art pl masc nom) [they which] is ho.

“hungering” πεινῶντες (part pl pres act masc nom) [do hunger] is peino.


A verb that means “to be hungry”, “crave after,” or “to be starved,” and it is a metaphor for desire and cravings.

“And” καὶ [and] is kai.

“thirsting” διψῶντες (part pl pres act masc nom) [thirst] is dipsao.


A verb that means “to thirst”, “to be thirsty,” “to be parched”, “to be in want of”, “to lack,” and “to thirst after” a thing.

“For this” τὴν, (art sg fem acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“justice” δικαιοσύνην, (noun sg fem acc) [righteousness] is dikaiosyne.


A noun that means “righteousness”, “justice”, “fulfillment of the law,” and “the business of a judge.” It carries the sense of virtue but specifically that of fulfilling legal or social requirements.

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom) [they] is autos.

“They shall get their fill” χορτασθήσονται. (3rd pl fut ind pass) [shall be filled] is chortazo.


A verb that means “feed”, “feast”, “fatten” and “to eat their fill.” It is a term most commonly used for cattle. It is the future, passive form, “be filled”,


Matthew 5:7 Blessed the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται.

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc/fem nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“the” οἱ, (art pl masc nom) ) [the] is ho.

“merciful” ἐλεήμονες, (adj pl masc nom) [merciful] is eleemon.


A noun that means the “pitiful” and “merciful.”

“Because” ὅτι (av) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom) [they] is autos.

“They shall receive mercy” ἐλεηθήσονται. (3rd pl fut ind pass) [shall obtain mercy] is the verb eleeo.


A verb that means “to have pity on,” “to show mercy to,” and “to feel pity.” In the passive, “to be shown pity,” and “to be pitied.”


Matthew 5:8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται.

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“The” οἱ (art pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“spotless” καθαροὶ (adj pl masc nom) [pure] is katharo.


An adjective that means “physically clean”, “spotless”, “clear”, “pure (water)”, “clear of objects”, “free of contamination”, “clear of debt”, “genuine”, “pure of birth”, “without blemish,” and “sound.”

“By this” τῇ, (art sg fem dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“heart” καρδίᾳ, (noun sg fem dat) [In heart] is kardia.


A noun that means “heart (the physical organ)”, “the seat of emotions (especially passion, rage, and anger)”, “inclination”, “desire,” “purpose”, “mind”, “the pith (in wood), and “the deep (of the sea).”

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” αὐτοὶ (adj pl masc nom) [they] is autos.

“The” τὸν (art sg masc acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“The Divine” θεὸν (noun sg masc acc) [god] is theos.


A noun that means “God,” “the Deity”, and “the Divine”.

“they shall see with their own eyes” ὄψονται (3rd pl fut ind mid) [shall see] is optanomai.


A verb that means “to see”, “to look”, “to aim at”, “to look towards”, “to have sight”, and so on. It has the specific sense of seeing with the eyes, since the root word is the Greek word for “eye”. The form is where the subject does something for or by themselves.


Matthew 5:9 “Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.”

μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι [αὐτοὶ] υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται.

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“The” οἱ, (art pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“peacemakers” οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, (noun pl masc nom) [peacemakers] is eirenopoios.


which means literally, “one who produces peace” or “one who makes peaceful.” The first part of the word comes from eirene, a noun which means both the “freedom from fear” and “a treaty of peace between countries”. The last part of the word is the verb,

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“they themselves” [αὐτοὶ] (adj pl masc nom) [they] is autos.

“Sons” υἱοὶ (noun pl masc nom) [the children] is huios.

“of divinity” θεοῦ (noun sg masc gen) [of God] is theos.

“They shall be called!” κληθήσονται. (3rd pl fut ind pass) [shall be called] is kaleo.


A verb that means “call”, “summon”, “invite”, “invoke”, “call by name,” and “demand.”


Matthew 5:10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“The ones” οἱ, (art pl masc nom) [they which] is ho.

“being hounding by themselves” δεδιωγμένοι (part pl perf mp masc nom) [are persecuted] is dioko.


A verb that means “to pursue”, “to chase”, “to urge on”, “to chase away”, “to carry forward”, “to be hurried (passive),” or “to drive.” It means “persecute” when used as a legal term. “Hounding” comes close to idea.

“for the sake” ἕνεκεν” (prep) [for] is heneka.


A preposition that means “on account of”, “as far as regards”, “in consequence of,” and “because.”

“of virtue”. δικαιοσύνης, (noun sg fem gen) [righteousness] is dikaiosyne.

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“theirs” αὐτῶν (adj pl masc/fem gen) [theirs] is autos.

“is” ἐστὶν (3rd sg pres ind act) [Is] is eimi.

“the” ἡ (art pl fem nom) [the] is ho.

realm” βασιλεία (noun sg fem nom) [the kingdom] is basileia.

“of the” τῶν (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“skies” οὐρανῶν. (noun pl masc gen) [of heaven] is ouranos.