Letter 3 Translation Notes


Matthew 5:11 Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.

μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθ᾽ ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ:

“Lucky” μακάριοι (adj pl masc nom) [blessed] is makarios.

“are you all” ἐστε (2nd pl pres ind act) [are] is eimi.

“When”, ὅταν (conj) [when] is hotan.

“they chide ὀνειδίσωσιν [uncommon] (3rd pl aor subj act) [revile” is oneidizo.


An uncommon verb that means “to cast in [one’s teeth]”, “to make a reproach”, “to reproach,” “to upbraid,” and “to chide.”

“you” ὑμᾶς (pron 2nd pl acc) [you] is su.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and” is kai.

“hound” διώξωσιν (3rd pl aor subj act) [persecute] is dioko.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“say” εἴπωσιν (verb 3rd pl aor subj act) [shall say] is eipon.


A verb that means “to speak”, “to say”, “to recite”, “to address”, “to mention”, “to name”, “to proclaim”, “to plead”, “to promise,” and “to offer.”

“every” πᾶν (adj sg neut acc) [all manner] is pas.


And adjective that means “all”, “the whole”, “every”, “anyone”, “all kinds,” and “anything.” In the adverbial form, it means “every way”, “on every side”, “in every way,” and “altogether.”

“worthless thing” πονηρὸν (adj sg neut acc) [evil] is poneros.


An adjective that means “worthless”, “base,” and “cowardly.”

“against” καθ᾽ (prep) [against] is kata.


A preposition/adverb that means “downwards”, “down from”, “down into”, “against”, “down toward”, “opposite”, “separately”, “individually”, “at a time”, “towards”, “in accordance with”, “concerning”, “corresponding with”, “during the course of a period,” and “severally.”

“you” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [you] is su.

“Being lied to by themselves” ψευδόμενοι (part pl pres mp masc nom) [falsely] is pseudo.


A verb that means “to cheat by lies”, “to beguile,” and “to cheat” or “disappoint” someone about something. In the passive, “to be cheated”, “to be deceived” “to be deceived about something,” and “to be mistaken about something.” The form is an adjective where the subject is acted on by themselves, “being lied to by themselves”.

“On account” ἕνεκεν (prep) [for...sake] is heneka.

“of me” ἐμοῦ: (pron 1st sg masc gen) [my] is ego.


Matthew 5:12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς: οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν.

“Rejoice” χαίρετε (2nd pl pres imperat act) [rejoice] is chairo.


A verb that means “rejoice”, “take pleasure in,” and “welcome.”

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“celebrate” ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, [uncommon] (2nd pl pres imperat mp) [be exceedingly glad] is agalliao.


A verb that means “rejoice exceedingly” and is a form of agallomai, which means to “glorify,” and “exalt,” especially the idea of “paying honor” to God.

“Because of” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“that” ὁ (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“payment” μισθὸς (noun sg masc nom) [reward] is misthos.


A noun that means “wages” in the sense of compensation for work done, “pay”, “allowance for public service”, “hire”, “fee”, “recompense,” and “reward.”

“of yours” ὑμῶν pron 2nd pl gen) [you] is su.

“Huge” πολὺς (adj sg masc nom) [great] is polys.


An adjective that means “many (in number)”, “great (in size or power or worth),” and “large (of space).”

“In” ἐν (prep) [In] is en.

“the” τοῖς (art pl masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“skies” οὐρανοῖς: (noun pl masc dat) [heaven] is the Greek ouranos.

“To such an extent” οὕτως (adv) [so] is houtos,


An adverb that means “in this way”, “therefore”, “so much”, “to such an extent,” and “that is why.” An adjective that means “this”, “that”, “the nearer.”

“Because” γὰρ (partic) [for] comes from gar.

“they probably would have harassed” ἐδίωξαν (3rd pl aor subj act) [persecuted] is dioko.

“the” τοὺς (art pl masc acc) [the] is ho.

“luminaries” προφήτας (noun pl masc acc) [prophets] is prophetes.


A noun that means “one who speaks for a god and interprets his will”, “interpreter”, “keepers of the oracle”, “the highest level of priesthood in Egypt”, “interpreter,” and “herald.”

“Those” τοὺς (article pl masc acc) [which] is ho.

“just like” πρὸ (prep) [were before] is pros.


A preposition that means “on the side of”, “in the direction of”, “from (place)”, “towards” “before”, “in the presence of”, “in the eyes of”, “in the name of”, “by reason of”, “before (supplication)”, “proceeding from (for effects)”, “dependent on”, “derivable from”, “agreeable,””becoming”,

“you” ὑμῶν. (pron 2nd pl gen) [you] is su.


Matthew 5:13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

Ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς: ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ, ἐν τίνι λισθήσεται; εἰς οὐδὲν ἰσχύει ἔτι εἰ μὴ βληθὲν ἔξω καταπατεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

“You yourselves” Ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) [ye] is su.

“You are” ἐστὲ (2nd pl pres ind act) [are] is eimi.

“the” τὸ (art sg neut nom) [the] is ho.

“salt” τὸ ἅλας [uncommon](noun sg neut nom) [salt] is halas.


The noun that means “salt”, “salt-rock”, “brine,” and is a metaphor for “sales” and “wit.”

“the” τῆς” (art sg fem gen) [the] is ho.

“of...earth!” γῆς.” (noun sg fem gen) [of...earth] is gê.

“what if “ ἐὰν (conj) [If] is ean.


A particle that is (derived from ei (if)and an (might) which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event. The following phrase because of its verb forms (subjunctive/future) has the form of a “future probably” statement.

“But” δὲ (partic) [but] is de.


A particle that means “but” and “on the other hand.” It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective (“and”) and explanation of cause (“so”) and a condition (“if”).

“that” τὸ [uncommon](noun sg neut nom) [the] is ho.

“salt” τὸ ἅλας” [uncommon](noun sg neut nom) [salt] is halas.

“might be insipid” μωρανθῇ, (aor, pass, subj) [lost his savour] is moraino.


A verb that means “to play a fool”, “to act foolishly”, “to be silly,” and “to be insipid.”

“In” ἐν (prep) [-with] is en.

“what” τίνι (irreg sg dat) [where-] is tis.

“should it be taken as being seasoned” λισθήσεται;[uncommon] (3rd sg fut ind pass) [salted] is halizo.


An uncommon verb that has two separate meanings, “to salt,” as in salting food, and “to gather together,” “to collect [pieces],” and “to meet together (passive).” The passive form of the “salted” form only typically applies to sheep, that is, putting out salt for them.

“In” εἰς (prep) [for] is eis.


A preposition that means “into (of place),” “up to (of time)”, “until (of time)”, “as much as (of measure or limit)”, “as far as (of measure or limit)”, “towards (to express relation)”, “in regard to (to express relation)”, “of an end or limit,” and “for (of purpose or object).”

“nothing”, οὐδὲν (adj sg neut nom) [nothing] is oudeis.


An adjective that means “no one”, “not one”, “nothing”, “naught”, “good for naught,” and “no matter.”

“Is it worthwhile” ἰσχύει (3rd sg pres ind act) [It is good] is ischuo.


A verb that means “to be strong”, “to be powerful”, “to prevail”, “to be worth,” and “to be equivalent to.”

“Not any longer” ἔτι (adv) [It is thenceforth] is eti.


An adverb that means “yet” and “still” (with the Present), “already” (with the Past), “yet” and “longer” (with the Future), “no longer” (with a negative), and”still” and “besides” (of degree).

“Except” εἰ (conj) μὴ (conj) [but] is ei me.

ei me,

A conjunction that means “if not”, “but,” and “except.” Ei is the particle use with the imperative usually to express conditions “if” or indirect questions, “whether.” Me is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning “not” and “no.”

“being tossed” βληθὲν (part sg aor pass neut nom) [cast] is ballo.


A verb that means “to throw”, “to let fall”, “to put”, “to pour,” or “to cast.” “Cast] is ballo, which means “to throw”, “to let fall”, “to put”, “to pour,” or “to cast.”

“out,” ἔξω (adv) [out] is exô.


An adverb means “out of a place”, “outside”, “external things,” and “beyond a time.”

“to walked” καταπατεῖσθαι [uncommon] (pres inf mp) [to be trodden underfoot] is katapateo.


An uncommon verb that means “to trod underfoot”, “trample,” and “trample down.” It’s literal meaning is “to walk down.” It is also a metaphor for treating someone rudely or spurning them, treating them with neglect.

“on ‘ ὑπὸ (prep) [of] is hypo.


A preposition that means “by”, “before,’ and “under,” (with genitive and passive verbs of cause, as here). It means literally “by showing.”

“these” τῶν. (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“by... people” ἀνθρώπων. (noun pl masc gen) [of men] is anthropos.


A noun is “man,” and, in plural, “mankind.” It also means “humanity” and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.


Matthew 5:14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid.

ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου. οὐ δύναται πόλις κρυβῆναι ἐπάνω ὄρους κειμένη:

“You yourselves” ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) [you] is su.

“The light” τὸ φῶς (noun sg neut nom) [the light] is phos.


A noun that means “light”, “daylight [primarily], “illumination [of things and of the mind]”, “light [of the eyes], “window”, “opening”, “ ublic visibility,” and “publicity.” Christ uses it as a metaphor for “knowledge,” but in Greek it is also a metaphor for “deliverance”, “happiness”, “victory,” and “glory.”

“this” τοῦ. (art sg masc gen) [the] is ho.

“of...society” τοῦ κόσμου. (noun sg masc gen) [of...world] is kosmos..


A noun that means “order”, “good order”, “ruler”, “world order”, “universe,” and “the world of men.”

“really doesn’t” οὐ (partic) [not] is ou.

“It...have the ability” δύναται (3rd sg pres ind mp) [can...] is dynamai.


A verb that means “to have power by virtue of your own capabilities”, “to be able,” and “to be strong enough.”

“A city” πόλις (noun sg fem nom ) [city] is polis.


A noun that means “city”, “citadel”, “one’s city”, “one’s country”, “community”, “state”, “state affairs,” and “civic duties”.

“To be kept secret” κρυβῆναι (aor inf pass) [be hid] is krypto.


A verb that means “to hide”, “to cover”, “”to keep secret,” and “to conceal.”

“on” ἐπάνω (prep) [on] is epano..


A preposition that means “above”, “on the upper side”, “[former] times”, “more [of numbers]”, “in front of,” and “in the presence of,”

“a hill” ὄρους (noun sg neut gen) [an hill] is oros.


A noun that means “mountain”, “hill”, “canton,” and “parish.” In Egypt, it was also used to mean the “desert” and a place of burial. It’s homonym oros means a “boundary”, “landmark”, “time limits”, “decisions of judges”, “memorial stones and pillars,” “standard”, “measure”, “term (in logic)”, “definition”, “terms,” and “conditions.”

“Sitting” κειμένη: [uncommon] (part sg pres mp fem nom) [set] is kailmia.


An uncommon verb that means “to lie down to rest”, “to lie dead”, “to be situated”, “to lie”, “to store”, “to be placed in a position”, “to lay down an argument,” and “to remain.”


Matthew 5:15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.

οὐδὲ καίουσιν λύχνον καὶ τιθέασιν αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τὸν μόδιον ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τὴν λυχνίαν, καὶ λάμπει πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ.

“Nor” οὐδὲ (adv/conj) [neither] is oude.


A word that, as conjunction, means “but not”, “neither”, and “nor.” As an adverb, it meams “not at all” and “not even.”

do they light” καίουσιν (3rd pl pres ind act) [do men light] is kaio.


A verb that means “to kindle”, “to set on fire”, “to burn,” and “to bake pottery.”

“a lamp” λύχνον (noun sg neut acc) [a candle] is lychnos.


A noun that means “portable light,” or “lamp.”

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“put” τιθέασιν (3rd pl pres ind act) [put] is tithêmi.


A verb that means “to put”, “to place”, “to propose”, “to suggest”, “to deposit”, “to set up”, “to dedicate”, “to assign”, “to award”, “to agree upon”, “to institute”, “to establish”, “to make”, “to work”, “to prepare oneself,” “to bear arms [military],” “to lay down and surrender [military],” “to lay in the grave”, “to bury,” and “to put words on paper [writing],” and a metaphor for “to put in one’s mind.”

“it” αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) [It] is autos.

“beneath” ὑπὸ (prep) [under] is hypo.

“A bushel basket” τὸν μόδιον (noun sg masc acc) [a bushel] is modios.

“Instead” ἀλλ᾽ (conj, adv) [but] is alla.

“upon” ἐπὶ (prep) [on] is epi.


A preposition that means “on”, “upon”, “at”, “by”, “before”, “across,” and “against.”

“the” τὴν (art sg fem acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“lamp stand” λυχνίαν, (noun sg fem acc) [candlestick] is lychnia.


An uncommon noun that means “lamp stand.”

“and] καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“it lights up” λάμπει (3rd sg pres ind act) [It giveth light] is lampo.


A verb that means “to shine forth”, “to ring loud and clear,” and “to illuminate.”

“every” πᾶσιν (adj pl masc dat) [unto all] is pas.

“one” τοῖς (article pl masc dat) [that] is ho.

“in” ἐν (prep) [In] is en.

“the” τῇ. (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“house” οἰκίᾳ. (noun sg fem dat) [house] is oikia.


οὕτως λαμψάτω τὸ φῶς ὑμῶν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὅπως ἴδωσιν ὑμῶν τὰ καλὰ ἔργα καὶ δοξάσωσιν τὸν πατέρα ὑμῶν τὸν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς.

“In this way,” οὕτως (adv) [so] is houtos.

“let it shine” λαμψάτω (3rd sg aor imperat act) [let...shine] is lampo.

“that” τὸ (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“light” τὸ φῶς (noun sg masc nom) [light] is phos.

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [your] is su.

“in front of” ἔμπροσθεν [uncommon](adv) [before] is emprosthen.


An adverb/conjunction that means as an adverb [of place]”in front of”, “before”, “forwards,” [of time] “before”, “of old,” and as a preposition, “facing”, “opposite”, “in front,” [of time] beforehand,” and [of degree] “preferred before.” It also denotes a ranking.

“those” τῶν, (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“people” ἀνθρώπων, (noun pl masc gen) [men] is anthropos. .

“So that” ὅπως (conj) [that] is hopos.


A conjunction that means “in such a manner as”, “in order that”, “in the manner in which”, “how,” [with negative] “there is no way that,” and [in questions] “in what way.”

“they might see” ἴδωσιν (3rd pl aor subj act) [they may see] is eidon.


A verb that means “to see”, “to examine”, “to perceive”, “to behold”, “to know how to do”, “to see with the mind’s eye,” and “to know.”

“your” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [your] is su.

“untranslated” τὰ (art pl neut nom/acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“beautiful” καλὰ (adj pl neut nom/acc) [good] is kalos.


An adjective that means “beautiful”, “good”, “of fine quality”, “noble,” and “honorable.” It is most often translated as “good” juxtaposed with “evil” in the New Testament, but the two ideas are closer to “wonderful” and “worthless”, “noble” and “base.”

“deeds” ἔργα ( noun pl neut nom/ acc)”Works] is ergon.


A noun means “works”, “tasks”, “deeds”, “actions”, “thing,” and “matter.”

“and] καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“recognize” δοξάσωσιν (3rd pl aor subj act) [glorify] is doxazo.


A verb that primarily means “to think”, “to expect”, “to imagine,” or “to suppose.” Secondarily, it means “to magnify” or “to extol,” which is where we get the “glorify” used most often in NT the translation. The English term “to recognize” carries the same sense of both seeing a person in the mind and honoring them.

“that” τὸν (noun sg masc acc) [the] is ho.

“Father” τὸν πατέρα (noun sg masc acc) [father] is pater.


A noun that means “father”, “grandfather”, “author”, “parent,” and “forefathers.”

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [your] is su.

“the one” τὸν (article sg masc acc) [which] is ho.

“in” ἐν (prep) [In] is en.

“the” τοῖς. (art pl masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“skies” οὐρανοῖς. (noun pl masc dat) [heaven] is ouranos.