Letter 4 Translation Notes

1. Christ’s Words starting on page 37. This verse introduced a number very important words for the first time: the subjective negative in “don’t”, the conjunction “or”, the word that I usually translated as “show up” but the Bible usually translates as “come”, and the word translated as “law”.

Matthew 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.

Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας: οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι:

“Don’t” Μὴ (partic) [not] is me.


The negative particle used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning “not” and “no.” As οὐ negates fact and statement. It denies in a relative, subjective way.

“get accustom to thinking” νομίσητε (2nd pl aor subj act) [think] is nomizo. This is the verb form of the word translated as “law”.

“that” ὅτι (conj) [that] is hoti.

“I have shown up” ἦλθον (1st sg aor ind act) [I am come] is erchomai.

“to break up” καταλῦσαι (aor inf act) [to destroy] is katalyo.

“those” τὸν (art sg masc acc) [the] is ho.

“customs” νόμον (noun sg masc acc) [law] is nomos.

“Or” ἢ (conj/adv) [or] is e.


The particle meaning, as a conjunction, “either”, “or,” or “than” and, as an adverb, “surely” or “doubtless”.

“the” τοὺς (art pl masc acc) is ho.

“luminaries” προφήτας (noun pl masc acc) [prophets] is prophetes.

“really haven’t” οὐκ (partic) [not] is ou.

“I ...shown up” ἦλθον (1st sg aor ind act) [I am come] is erchomai.


A verb that means “to start,” “to set out”, “to come”, “to go,” and any kind of motion. It means both “to go” on a journey and “to arrive” at a place.

“to break up” καταλῦσαι (verb aor inf act) [to destroy] is katalyo.


The verb that means “to put down”, “to destroy”, “to dissolve”, “to break up”, “to dismiss”, “to disband”, “to abolish”, “to bring to an end”, “to unloose,” and “to unyoke.”

“But” ἀλλὰ (adv) [but] is alla.

“to fill up” πληρῶσαι: (aor inf act) [to fulfill] is pleroo.


The verb that means “to fill”, “to fulfill”, “to make complete”, “to pay in full”, “to make pregnant,” and “to fill full.”

2. Christ’s Words starting on page 38. This verse introduces the important concept of bread with the connected concept of life in the form of the verb “live”. It comes before the Sermon in the Matthew. This verse also demonstrates the inconsistency of Biblical translation of the Greek word for “word”.

Matthew 4:4 It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.

“Οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ αντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ.”

“Not” “Οὐκ (partic) [not] is ou.

“upon” ἐπ᾽ (prep) [by] is epi.

“bread” ἄρτῳ (noun sg masc dat) [bread] is artos.

“alone” μόνῳ (adj sg neut dat) [Alone] is monon.

“is he going to live” ζήσεται (3rd sg fut ind mid) [shall live] is zaô.

“This” ὁ, (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“man” ὁ ἄνθρωπος, (noun sg masc nom) [man] is anthrôpos.

“But” ἀλλ᾽ (adv) [but] is alla.

“upon” ἐπὶ (prep) [by] is epi.

“every” παντὶ (adj sg neut dat) [Every] is pas.

“saying” ῥήματι (noun sg neut dat) [word] is rhema. This is not the Greek word usually translated as “word” in the Gospels.

“pouring out” ἐκπορευομένῳ (part sg pres mp masc dat) [proceedeth] is ekporeuomai.


A verb that means “to make to go out”, “to fetch out,” and “to march out.”

“through” διὰ (prep) [out of] is dia.


A preposition that means “through”, “in the midst of”, “in a line (movement)”, “throughout (time)”, “by (causal)”, “among,” and “between.”

“a mouth” στόματος (noun sg neut gen) [the mouth] is stoma.


A noun that means “mouth”, “the organ of speech”, “speech”, “utterance,” “any outlet or entrance,” and “the foremost part” of something. For example, the blade or point of a weapon is a stoma.

“Of God,” θεοῦ (noun sg masc gen) [of God] is theos.

3. Christ’s Words starting on page 39. This verse introduces the one of his repeated catchphrases, “honestly, I am telling you!” The word translated “tell” is also very important and used for the first time here. This verse is also the first use of the important particle “an”, which is often untranslated in the Bible.

Matthew 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ, ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κερέα οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου ἕως [ἂν] πάντα γένηται.

“Honestly” ἀμὴν (exclam) [truly] is amen.

“Because” γὰρ (adv) [For] is gar.

“I’m telling” λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) [I tell] is lego.


The verb that means to “count,” “recount”, “tell over”, “say”, “speak”, “teach”, “mean”, “boast of”, “tell of”, “recite,” “nominate,” and “command.” It also means “pick up”, “choose for oneself”, and “pick out.”

“you” ὑμῖν, (pron 2nd pl dat) [You] is su.

“While,” .ἕως (conj) [till] is heos.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“it might pass away” παρέλθῃ (3rd sg aor subj) [shall...pass] is parerchomai.

“the” τοῖς (art sg masc nom) [the] is ho.

“sky” οὐρανὸς (noun sg masc nom) [heaven] is ouranos.

“also” καὶ (conj) [And] is kai.

“the” ἡ (art sg fem nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“earth” γῆ, (noun sg fem nom) [earth] is ge.

“An ‘i’” ἰῶτα (irreg) [Jot] is iota.


A noun that means the Greek letter iota, “line”, “stroke,” and anything very small.

“One” ἓν (noun sg neut nom) [one] is heis.


An adjective/noun that means “one” (as opposed to other numbers), “single,” and “one and the same.” As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person. It can also work like the indefinite article in English (“a”, “an”) but Jesus doesn’t use it that way. This adjective is irregular, having a number of forms depending on sex, number, and case: heis, henos, heni, hen, hena, mia, mias, miai, mian; hen, henos, hen.

“Certainly” ἢ (conj) [or] is e.

“one” μία (adj sg fem nom) [one] is heis.

“a jot” κερέα {κεραίᾶ} (noun sg fem nom)] [tittle] is keraia.


A noun that means “the horn of an animal”, “the antenna of crustaceans”, and “a bow”. The small apostrophe like mark to distinguish numbers from letters in Greek is horn-shaped and therefore called a keraia.

“Never” οὐ μὴ (partic) [In no wise] is ou me.

ou me,

The two forms of Greek negative used together. Ou is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. Mê is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning “not” and “no.” As οὐ negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. Together the sense is “never”.

“is it going to pass” παρέλθῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) [shall...pass] is parerchomai.


The verb that means “go by”, “pass by”, “outstrip” (in speed), “pass away”, “outwit”, “past events” (in time), “disregard”, “pass unnoticed,” and “pass without heeding.” Literally, it means “start beyond.”

“from” ἀπὸ (prep) [from] is apo.


A preposition of separation which means “from” or “away from” from when referring to place or motion, “from” or “after” when referring to time, “from” as an origin or cause.

“the” τοῦ (art sg masc gen) [the] is ho.

“law” νόμου (noun sg masc gen) [law] is nomos.

“Until” ἕως (conj) [till] is heos.


The conjunction that means “till”, “until”, “while,” and “so long as.”

“possibly” [ἂν] (partic) [untranslated] is an. (This appears only in some sources.)

“everything” πάντα (adj sg masc acc or adj pl neut nom/acc) [all] is pas. .

“it becomes” γένηται. (3rd sg aor subj mid) [be fulfilled] is ginomai.


The verb that means “to become”, “to come into being”, “to be produced,” and “to be.” It means changing into a new state of being.

4. Christ’s Words starting on page <?>. This verse introduces that idea of “producing” or “doing”, which becomes a central theme of the sermon.

Matthew 5:19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

ὃς ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων καὶ διδάξῃ οὕτως τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἐλάχιστος κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν: ὃς δ᾽ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶνοὐρανῶν.

“What” ὃς (pron sg masc nom) [who-] is hos.


A adverb,conjunction, and demonstrative pronoun that means “this”, “that”, “he”, “she”, “which”, “what”, “who”, “whosoever”, “where”, “for which reason,” and many similar meanings. As a conjunction it means to “thus”, “as”, “how”, “when”, “where”, “like”, “just as”, “so far as”, “as much as can be”, “that”, “in order that”, “nearly (with numbers),” and “know that.

“if...perhaps...” ἐὰν (conj) [-soever” is ean.

“really” οὖν (partic) [therefore] is oun.


A particle that means “certainly”, “in fact”, “really”, “in fact,” “so” and “then” (continuing a narrative), and “then” and “therefore.”

“he might undo” one of these laws λύσῃ (3rd sg aor subj act “Shall break] is lyo.


A verb that means “unfasten”, “unbind”, “unyoke”, “released by payment or ransom”, “deliverance from guilt”, “blotting out” of sins”dissolve”, “breakup”, “break a whole into parts”, “break [legal obligations]”, “destroy”, “solve”, “fulfill”, “accomplish”, “atone”, “pay wages in full,” and “make up for.”

“one” μίαν (adj sg fem acc) [one] is heis.

“these” τῶν (art pl fem gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“of...orders” ἐντολῶν (noun pl fem gen) [of...commandments] is entole.


A noun that means “injunction”, “order,” and “command.”

“these here” τούτων (adj pl fem gen) [these] is toutou.

“these” τῶν (art pl fem gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“tiniest” ἐλαχίστων (adj pl fem gen) [least] is elachistos.


An adjective is the superlative form of elachus which means “small”, “little,” and “short.” It means “the smallest”, “the shortest”, “the least,” and “the fewest.”

“And” καὶ (conj) [And] is kai.

“he might teach” διδάξῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) [shall teach] is didasko.


A verb that means “to teach”, “to instruct”, “to indicate”, “to explain,” and “to give sign of.”

“Like this” οὕτως (adv) [so] is houtos.

“to these” τῶν (art pl fem gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“.people” ἀνθρώπους (noun pl masc acc) [men] is anthropos.

“tiniest” ἐλάχιστος (adj sg masc nom) [the least] is elachistos.

“he is going to be called” κληθήσεται (3rd sg fut ind pass) [shall be called] is kaleo.

“In” ἐν (prep) [In] is en.

“the” τῇ (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“realm” βασιλείᾳ (noun) [kingdom] is basileia.

“the” τῶν (art pl fem gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“of...skies” οὐρανῶν: (noun) [of heaven] is ouranos.

“That one,” ὃς (pron sg masc nom) [whosoever] is hos.

“however,” δ᾽ (partic) [but] is de.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“who might produce” ποιήσῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) [shall do] is poieô.


The verb that means “to make”, “to produce”, “to create”, “to bring into existence”, “to bring about”, “to cause”, “to render”, “to consider”, “to prepare”, “to make ready,” and “to do.”

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“teach” διδάξῃ, (3rd sg aor subj act) [teach] is didasko.

“like this” οὗτος (adj sg masc nom) [them, the same] is houtos.

“A big one,” μέγας (noun/adj sg masc nom) [great] is megas.


An adjective that means “big”, “full grown”, “great”, “high”, “loud”, “mighty” “important,” and “strong”. As a noun it means “big one”, “great one”, etc.

“he is going to be called” κληθήσεται (3rd sg fut ind pass) [shall be called] is kaleô.

“in” ἐν (prep) [in] is en.

“the” τῇ (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“realm” βασιλείᾳ (noun sg fem dat) [kingdom] is basileia.

“the” τῶν (art pl fem gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“of ... skies” οὐρανῶν: (noun pl fem gen) [of heaven] is ouranos.

5. Christ’s Words starting on page 41.

Matthew 5:20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.

λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ περισσεύσῃ ὑμῶν ἡ δικαιοσύνη πλεῖον τῶν γραμματέων καὶ Φαρισαίων, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν.

“I am telling” λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) [I say] is legô.

“the reason” γὰρ (partic) [for] comes from gar.

“to you all” ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) [you] is su.

“Because” ὅτι (adv/conj) [that] is hoti.

“unless” ἐὰν μὴ (conj+part) [except] is ean me.

ean me,

A conjunction that means “if not”, “but,” and “except.” Ean is the particle that expresses “if might.” Mê is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning “not” and “no.”

“you each might be superior” περισσεύσῃ (verb 2nd sg fut ind mid or verb 3rd sg aor subj act) [exceed] is perisseuo.


A verb that means “to be over and above”, “to go beyond”, “to abound in”, “to be superior,” and, in a negative sense, “to be superfluous.”

“to all of you” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) gen of comparison [your] is su.

“This” ἡ (art sg fem nom) [the] is ho.

“virtue” δικαιοσύνη (noun sg fem nom) [righteousness] is dikaiosyne.

“surpassing” πλεῖο (adj sg neut nom) [untranslated] is pleion.


A an adjective that means “more [in number, size, or extent]”, “surpassing”, “greater than”, “longer [of time]”, “the greater number”, “a higher degree”, “superior,” and “beyond.”

“these” τῶν (art pl masc gen) [the] is ho.

“writers” γραμματέων (noun pl masc gen) [scribes] is grammateus.


A noun that is generally a “secretary”, “recorder,” and “scholar,” but specifically means someone who uses gramma which is Greek for “drawings”, “a letter,” (as in an alphabet)”diagrams,” and “letters” (as in correspondence).

καὶ (conj) [And] is kai.

Φαρισαίων (noun pl masc gen) [pharisees] is Pharisaios.


A noun that means in Hebrew “the separate ones” and refers to the religious sect. The word comes from the Hebrew, pharash, which means “to distinguish.” this is the primary meaning of the Greek word krino, which is usually translated as “judge” in the Gospels.

“Never ever” οὐ μὴ (partic) [in no case] is ou me.

“are you getting” εἰσέλθητε (2nd pl aor subj act) [ye shall...enter] is eiserchomai.


A verb that means both “to go into”, “to come in”, “to enter”, “to enter an office”, “to enter a charge,” (as in court) and “to come into one’s mind.”

“into” εἰς (prep) [in] is eis.

“the” τὴν (art sg fem acc) [the] is ho.

“realm” βασιλείαν (noun sg fem acc) [kingdom] is basileia.

“the” τῶν (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

of ... skies! οὐρανῶν. (noun pl masc gen) [of heaven ] is ouranos.