Letter 5 Translation Notes

1. Christ’s Words starting on page 45. This is an interesting quote because the “command” not to kill is not a command but a suggestion. The

Matthew 5:21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη τοῖς ἀρχαίοις “Οὐ φονεύσεις:” ὃς δ᾽ ἂν φονεύσῃ, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει.

“You’ve heard” Ἠκούσατε (2nd pl aor ind act) [ye have heard] is akouo.

“that” ὅτι (conj) [that] is hoti.

“it was proclaimed” ἐρρέθη [uncommon](3rd sg aor ind pass) [It hath been said,] is ero.

ero,

A verb that means “to speak”, “to say”, “to pronounce”, “to tell”, “to let suffice”, “to announce”, “to proclaim,” (in passive) [to be pronounced”, “to be mentioned”, “to be specified”, “to be agreed,” and “to be promised.”

“by the” τοῖς (art pl masc dat) [by them] is ho.

“ancients” ἀρχαίοις (adj pl masc dat) [of old time] is archaios.

archaios,

An adjective that means as an adjective means “from the beginning”, “from the source”, “ancient”, “simple”, “silly”, “former”, “the Ancients [of people]”, “anciently [adverb], and “the principle [in a loan],”

“not” “Οὐ (partic) [not] is ou.

“You should...kill” φονεύσεις:” (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) [thou shalt...kill] is phoneuō.

phoneuō,

A verb that means “to kill”, “to murder”, “to be slain [passive], and “to stain with blood.” The original Hebrew word Leviticus 24:17 was nakah, which meant “to kill”, “to murder,” and, more generally, “to strike”, “to hit,” and, even, “to chastise.”

“Someone who” ὃς (pron sg masc nom) [whoever] is hos.

“however” δ᾽ (partic) [and] is de.See Glossary, page 178.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“might...kill” φονεύσῃ, (3rd sg aor subj act) [shalt kill] is phoneuō,

“bound” ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) [in danger] is enochos,

enochos,

An adjective that means “held in by”, “bound by”, “liable to”, “subject to”, “guilty,” and “liable to a penalty for.”

“is going to be” ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) [shall be] is eimi.

“by that” τῇ (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“by...judgment” κρίσει. (noun sg fem dat) [of judgment] is krisis.

krisis,

A noun that means “separating”, “distinguishing”, “judgment”, “choice”, “election”, “trial”, “dispute”, “event,” and “issue.”

2. Christ’s Words starting on page 46. The word “raca” is easily translated. The word for “hell” isn’t the Greek word for “hell” at all.

Matthew 5:22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ὀργιζόμενος

τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ἔνοχος ἔσται τῇ κρίσει: ὃς δ᾽ ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ Ῥακά, ἔνοχος ἔσται τῷ συνεδρίῳ:ὃς δ᾽ ἂν εἴπῃ Μωρέ, ἔνοχος ἔσται εἰς τὴν γέενναν τοῦ πυρός. Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.

“I, myself” Ἐγὼ (pron 1st sg masc nom) [I] is ego.

“however” δὲ (partic) [but] is de.

“I tell” λέγω (verb 1st sg pres ind act) [say] is lego.

“you” ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) [unto you] is su.

“that” ὅτι (adv/conj) [that] is hoti.

“everyone” πᾶς (adj sg masc nom) [whosoever] is pas.

“being irritated” ὁ ὀργιζόμενος (part sg pres mp masc nom) [angry] is orgizo.

orgizo,

A verb that means “to be made angry”, “to be provoked to anger,” and “to be irritated.”

“that ” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“by ...brother” ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) [with...brother] is adelphos.

“of his” αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) [his] is autos.

“bound” ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) [in danger] is enochos, See

“is going to be” ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) [shall be] is eimi. See

“that” τῇ (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“by...decision” κρίσει. (noun sg fem dat) [of judgment] is krisis.

“Who” ὃς (pron sg masc nom) [whosoever] is hos.

“however,” δ᾽ (partic) [and] is de.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“might say” εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act) [shall say] is eipon.

“that ” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“to ...brother” τῷ ἀδελφῷ (noun sg masc dat) [with...brother] is adelphos.

“of his” αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) [his] is autos.

“You rags” Ῥακά, [unique](noun pl neut voc) [raka] is rakos. See

“bound” ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) [in danger] is enochos, See

“Is going to be” ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) [shall be] is eimi.

“the ” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [the] is ho.

“by....town council” συνεδρίῳ: (noun sg neut dat) [of...council] is synedrion.

synedrion,

A noun that means “council”, “meeting”, “councils of war,” and “meeting room.” It specifically referred to the local councils who administrated Judean towns.

“Someone who” ὃς (pron sg masc nom) [whoever] is hos.

“however” δ᾽ (partic) [and] is de.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“might say” εἴπῃ (3rd sg aor subj act ) [shall say] is eipon.

“You moron” Μωρέ, (adj sg masc voc) [thou fool] is moros.

“bound” ἔνοχος (adj sg masc nom) [in danger] is enochos,

“Is going to be” ἔσται (3rd sg fut ind mid) [shall be] is eimi.

“into” εἰς (prep) [of] is eis.

“that” τὴν (art sg fem acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“Gehenna” γέενναν (noun sg fem acc) [hell] is geenna.

geenna,

A noun that is Greek for Gehenna, the valley of Hinnom (the Hebrew word), south of Jerusalem where trash, including diseased animals and human corpses was burned. A constant fire was kept burning there. This area was originally where children were sacrificed to Baal, and Baal (Beelzebub, “lord of the flies”) is the name that Christ says others call him as the personification of evil.

“the” τοῦ (art sg neut gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“of ...fire” πυρός. (noun sg neut gen) [of..fire] is pyr.

3. Christ’s Words starting on page 48. This is the first use of the very common verb, “to have”.

Matthew 5:23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;​

ἐὰν οὖν προσφέρῃς τὸ δῶρόν σου ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον κἀκεῖ μνησθῇς ὅτι ὁ ἀδελφός σου ἔχει τι κατὰ σοῦ,

“When” ἐὰν (conj) [if] is ean.

“in fact” οὖν (adv) [therefore] is oun.

“you might present” προσφέρῃς (2nd sg pres subj act) [thou bring] is prosphero.

prosphero,

A verb that means “to bring to, “ “to bring upon”, “to apply to,” [without dat] “to apply, use, or use”, “to add to”, “to present”, “to offer”, “to address [proposals]”, “to convey [property]”, “to contribute”, “to pay”, “to be carried towards [passive]”, “to attack”, “to assault”, “to go toward”, “to deal with”, “to take [food or drink],” to exhibit”, “to declare,” and “to lead to.”

“that” τὸ (art sg neut acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“gift” δῶρόν (noun sg neut acc) [gift] is doron.

doron

A noun that means “gift”, “present,” and specifically a “votive gift” or “offering” to a god. The simpler term without the sense of a votive offering is “dorea.”

“of yours” σου (adj sg masc gen) [thy] is su.

“on” ἐπὶ” (prep) [to] is epi.

“that” τὸ (art sg neut acc) [the] is ho.

“altar” θυσιαστήριον (noun sg neut acc) [altar] is thysiastērion.

thysiastērion,

A noun that means “altar.”

“do you make amends for yourself” κἀκεῖ (verb 2nd sg pres ind mp) or (adv) [there] either the verb akeomai or kakei.

akeomai,

A verb that means :to heal”, “to cure”, “to mend”, “to repair” and “make amends.”

kakei,

An adverb that means “there”, “in that place”, “what is or happens there”, “events there”, “then [rarely of time],” and “in an intelligible world”.

“You might be reminded” μνησθῇς (2nd sg aor subj pass) [rememberest] is mnaomai.

mnaomai,

A verb that means “to remind”, “to put in mind”, “to recall to memory”, “to remember,” and “to give heed to.”

“That” ὅτι (adv) [that] is hoti.

“this” ὁ (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“brother” ἀδελφός (noun sg masc nom) [brother] is adelphos.

“of yours” σου (adj sg masc gen) [thy] is su.

“has” ἔχει (3rd sg pres ind act) [hath] is echo.

echo,

The verb that means “to have”, “to hold”, “to possess”, “to keep”, “to have charge of”, “to maintain”, “to hold fast”, “to bear”, “to keep close”, “to keep safe,” and “to have means to do.”

“something” τι (pron sg neut nom) [untranslated] is tis.

“against” κατὰ (prep) [against] is kata.

“you” σοῦ, (adj sg masc gen) [you] is su.

4. Christ’s Words starting on page 48. The first use of the very common word “leave”.

Matthew 5:24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.​

ἄφες ἐκεῖ τὸ δῶρόν σου ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου, καὶ ὕπαγε πρῶτον διαλλάγηθι τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου, καὶ τότε ἐλθὼν πρόσφερε τὸ δῶρόν

“Drop it off” ἄφες (2nd sg aor imperat act) [Leave] is aphiemi.

mnaomai,

A verb that means “to remind”, “to put in mind”, “to recall to memory”, “to remember,” and “to give heed to.”

there” ἐκεῖ (adv) [there] is ekei.

ekei,

An adjective that means “there”, “in that place,” and in philosophy means “the intelligible world.”

“that” τὸ (art sg neut acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“gift” δῶρόν (noun sg neut acc) [gift] is doron.

“of yours” σου (adj sg masc gen) [thy] is su.

“in front of” προσθεν (adv) [before] is emprosthen.

“that” τοῦ (art sg neut gen) [the] is ho.

“altar” θυσιαστηρίου (noun sg neut acc) [altar] is thysiastērion.

“And” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“take off” ὕπαγε (2nd sg pres imperat act) [go thy way] is hupago.

hupago,

A verb that means “to lead under”, “to bring under”, “to bring a person before judgment”, “to lead on by degrees”, “to take away from beneath”, “to withdraw”, “to go away”, “to retire”, “to draw off,” and “off with you.”

“First” πρῶτον (adj sg neut nom/acc) [first] is protos.

protos.

An adjective that means “the foremost” (of place), “the initial” (of time), “the first” (of order), “prime numbers” (in math), “the highest” (of rank or degree), or “the best.”

“have your mind changes” διαλλάγηθι [uncommon](2nd, aor, passive, imper) [be reconciled] is diallasso.

diallasso,

A verb that means “to change”, “to change someone’s mind,” and “to renew a friendship.” It is from dia which means “through”, “in the midst of”, “in a line (movement)”, “throughout (time)”, “by (causal)”, “among,” and “between.” And from the verb allasso, which means “change.” “alter”, “give in exchange”, “barter”, “repay,” or “requite”.

“that” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“brother” ἀδελφός (noun sg masc dat) [brother] is adelphos.

“of yours” σου, (adj sg masc gen) [thy] is su.

“And” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“then” τότε (adv) [then] is tote.

“showing up ἐλθὼν (part sg aor act masc nom) [come] is erchomai.

“offer” πρόσφερε (2nd sg pres imperat act) [and offer] is prosphero.

“that” τὸ (art sg neut acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“gift” δῶρόν (noun sg neut acc) [gift] is doron.

5. Christ’s Words starting on page <OV>. The word translated as “swiftly” is a good example of a word that was likely the response to a question because it doesn’t fit with anything else in the verse. It is an adjective, not a adverb, but it doesn’t match any of the nouns here.

Matthew 5:25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.

ἴσθι εὐνοῶν τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ σου ταχὺ ἕως ὅτου εἶ μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, μή ποτέ σε παραδῷ ὁ ἀντίδικος τῷ κριτῇ, καὶ ὁ κριτὴς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ, καὶ εἰς φυλακὴν βληθήσῃ:

“Be” ἴσθι (2nd sg pres imperat act) [untranslated] is eimi. See Glossary, page 183.

“friendly” εὐνοῶν [uncommon](part sg pres act masc nom) [agree] is eunoeō.

eunoeō,

An adjective that means “to be well-inclined”, “to be favorable”, “to be kindly”, “to be friendly”, “to be liked,” and “to be affectionately treated.” It is a homonym with another word, eunao meaning “to lay in ambush,” “to lay or lull to sleep” and “to have sexual intercourse.”

“With that complainant” τῷ ἀντιδίκῳ [uncommon](adj sg masc dat) [adversary] is antidikos.

antidikos,

A noun that means “opponent or adversary in a suit”, “the defendant [primarily],” “the plaintiff,” and, generally, “opponent,” and “adversary.”

“of yours” σου (adj sg masc gen) [thine] is su.

tachy.

An adjective that means “swift”, “fleet”, “quick”, “hasty”, “rapid”, “sudden,” and “short.”

“Speed” ταχὺ (adj sg neut acc/nom) [swiftly] is tachy.

“Until” ἕως (conj) [while] is heos.

“that time” ὅτου (pron sg masc gen) [while] is hostis,

hostis

A pronoun that means “that”, “which”, “anyone who”, “anything which”, “whosoever,” “whichsoever”, “anybody whatsoever”, “from which time,” and “for which cause.” With the preposition heos “until that time.”

“you are” εἶ (2nd sg pres ind act) [thou art] is eimi.

“together with” μετ᾽ (prep) [with] is meta.

meta,

A preposition that means “in the midst of”, “among”, “between”, “in common”, “along with”, “by the aid of”, “in one’s dealings with”, “into the middle of”, “coming into”, “in pursuit of”, “after”, “behind”, “according to,” and “next afterward”.

“him: αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) [him] is autos.

“in” ἐν (prep) [in] is en.

“the” τῇ (art sg fem dat) [the] is ho.

“way” ὁδῷ, (noun sg fem dat) [the way] is hodos.

hodos,

A noun that means literally “the way” or “the road” but which is used symbolically to mean “a way of doing things” or “a philosophy of life.”

“Don’t want”μή (partic) [Lest] is me.

“at any time” ποτέ (adv) [at any time] is pote.

“you” σε (pron 2nd sg acc) [thee] is su.

“he might turn...over” παραδῷ (3rd sg aor subj act) [deliver] is paradidomi.

paradidomi,

A verb that means “to give over to another”, “to transmit”, “to hand down”, “to grant”, “to teach,” and “to bestow.”

“that” ὁ (art sg masc nom) [the] is ho.

“complainant” ἀντίδικος (adj sg masc nom) [adversary] is antidikos.

“the” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [the] is ho. See Glossary, page 185.

“to...judge” κριτῇ, (noun sg masc dat) [to...judge] is krites.

krites,

The noun that means “judge”, “umpire,” and “interpreter.”

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“the” ὁ (art pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“the judge” κριτὴς (noun sg masc nom) [judge] is krites.

“the” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [the] is ho.

“to ... officer” ὑπηρέτῃ, (noun sg masc dat) [officer] is hyperetes.

hyperetes,

The noun that means “rower”, “underling”, “servant”, “attendant”, “subordinate,” and “aides-de-camp.”

“And” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“into” εἰς (prep) [into] is eis.

“a cell” φυλακὴν (noun sg fem acc) [prison] is phylake.

phylake,

A noun means “a watching or guarding”, “a guard”, “a ward”, “a watch”, “ “a station”, “a post,” “a keeping”, “a preserving”, “safekeeping”, “a safe-guard,” and “a precaution.”

“You are going to get tossed” βληθήσῃ: (2nd sg fut ind pass) [Cast] is ballo.

6. Christ’s Words starting on page 45. , Matthew 5:26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.

ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, οὐ μὴ ἐξέλθῃς ἐκεῖθεν ἕως ἂν ἀποδῷς τὸν ἔσχατον κοδράντην.

“Honestly” ἀμὴν (adv) [verily] is amen.

“I’m telling” λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) [I tell] is lego.

“you,” σοι, (pron 2nd sg dat) [thee] is su.

“Never” οὐ μὴ (partic) [by no means] is ou me.

“are you getting out” ἐξέλθῃς (2nd sg aor subj act) [thou shalt...come out] is exerchomai.

exerchomai,

A verb that means “to come or go out of “ “to march forth”, “go out on”, “to stand forth”, “to exceed all bounds”, “to come to an end”, “to go out of office,” and [of dreams or prophecies] “to come true.”

“of there”ἐκεῖθεν (adv) [out thence] is ekeithen.

ekeithen,

An adverb that means “from that place”, “thence”, “from that fact,” and “thence forward.”

“until” ἕως (conj) [till] is heos. See Glossary, page 186.

“possibly” ἂν (partic) [untranslated] is an.

“you have turned over” ἀποδῷς (2nd sg aor subj act) [thou hast paid] is apodidomi.

apodidomi

A verb that means “to give”, “to grant”, “to hand over,” and “to describe.” which means “to give back”, “to restore,” and “to deliver.” It also means to “give an account” of a thing, “explain”, or “interpret.” It has the economic sense of “to sell” or “to give something for one’s own profit.” It begins with apo the preposition of separation and origin, the idea of “from” in English, didômi which means “to give”, “to grant”, “to hand over,” and “to describe.”

“that” τὸν (art sg masc acc) [the] is ho.

“last” ἔσχατον (adj sg masc acc) [uttermost] is eschatos.

eschatos.

An adjective that means “furthest” (in space), “uttermost” (in degree), “highest” or “lowest”, “meanest” (in persons). “last” (of time), and “ending.”

“penny” κοδράντην. (noun sg masc acc) [farthing] is kodrantes.

kodrantes,

The noun that is the Greek for the Latin quadrans, which means “one quarter of an assarion (a larger coin).” The quadrans was a bronze coin and the least valuable form of Roman currency.