Letter 7 Translation Notes

1. Christ’s Words on page 68.

Matthew 5:38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:

Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη “Ὀφθαλμὸν ἀντὶ ὀφθαλμοῦ καὶ ὀδόντα ἀντὶ ὀδόντος.”

“You have heard” Ἠκούσατε (2nd pl aor ind act) [ye have heard] is akouo.

“that” ὅτι (adv) [that] is hoti.

“it was proclaimed” ἐρρέθη (3rd sg aor ind pass) [It hath been said] is rheo.


The verb that means means “to say”, “to speak”, “”to proclaim”, “to announce”, “to tell”, “to order,” “to be pronounced [passive]”, “to let suffice [passive]”, “to have been given orders”, “to be mentioned,” and “to be specified, agreed, or promised.”

“an eye” “Ὀφθαλμὸν (noun sg masc acc) [an eye] is ophthalmos.

“in return” for an eye—ἀντὶ [uncommon](prep) [for] is anti.


A prepositions that means “opposite”, “over against”, “instead”, “in place of”, “at the price of”, “in return for”, “for the sake of”, “against”, “in return”, “equal to”, “corresponding to,” and “mutually.”

“an eye” ὀφθαλμοῦ (noun sg masc gen ) [an eye] is ophthalmos.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“a tooth”  ὀδόντα (noun sg masc acc) [a tooth] is odous.


The noun that means “tooth”, “anything pointed”, “prong”, “spike”, “peak,” and “tooth [of a saw].” It is a metaphor for the pain of grief.

“in return for” ἀντὶ (prep) [for] is anti.

“a tooth” ὀδόντος.” (noun sg masc gen) [a tooth] is odous.

2. Christ’s Words on page 69.

Matthew 5:39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.

Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ἀντιστῆναι τῷ πονηρῷ: ἀλλ᾽ ὅστις σε ῥαπίζει εἰςτὴν δεξιὰν σιαγόνα [σου], στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην:

“I myself” Ἐγὼ (pron sg 1st nom) [I] is ego.

“however” δὲ (adv) [but] is de.

“I am telling” λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) [say] is lego.

“you all” ὑμῖν (pron pl 2nd dat) [you] is su.

“do not want” μὴ (partic) [not] is me.

“to compare” ἀντιστῆναι (aor inf act) [ye resist] is antihestimi.


A verb that means “to set against”, “to match with”, “to compare”, “to stand against”, “to withstand”, “to turn out unfavorably,” and “to make a stand.” “The” τῷ (art sg masc dat) [untranslated] is ho.

“worthless” πονηρῷ: (adj sg masc dat) [evil] is poneros.

“Someone else?” ἀλλ᾽ is a word that has four possible meanings.: allos (adj sg masc voc or adj sg neut nom), or allasso, (verb 2nd sg fut ind mp) or alla (conj) .


The verb that means “change.” “alter”, or “give in exchange”, so, in this form “you are going to change yourself”.


“The other” is from allos, which means “another”, “one besides”, “of another sort”, “different”, “other than what is true”, “as well”, “besides,” {with numerals: “yet”, “still”, “further”), “of other sort”, “other than what is”, “untrue”, “unreal”, “other than right”, “wrong”, “bad”, “unworthy,” [with an article] “the rest”, “all besides,” and [in series] “one...another.”

“someone” ὅστις (pron sg masc nom ) [whoseoever] is hostis,

“you” σε (pron 2nd sg acc) [thee] is su.

“punches on that right jaw of yours ῥαπίζει (3rd sg pres ind act) [smite] is rhapizō.


The verb that means “hit with a stick”, “cudgel”, “thrash”, “to slap a face,” generally, “to strike” or “to beat.”

“in” εἰς (prep) [on] is eis.

“that” τὴν (art sg fem acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“right” δεξιὰν (adj sg fem acc) [right] is dexios.”

“jaw” σιαγόνα (noun sg fem acc ) [cheek] is siagōn.


The noun that means “jaw”, “jaw-bone,” and “cheek.”

“of yours” [σου], [Thy] is  su.

“Turn back” στρέψον (2nd sg aor imperat act) [turn] is strepho.


A verb that means “turn aside”, “turn about,” “turn over”, “rotate”, “sprain”, “dislocate”, “twist”, “torture”, “return”, “plait”, “to twist about”, “turn and change”, “to always be engaged in”, “to turn about with oneself”, “to wheel about”, “give back,” and “convert.” It is a metaphor for pain.

“to him” αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat ) [to him] is autos.

“also” καὶ (coni) [also] is kai.

“the” τὴν (art sg fem acc) [the] is ho.

“other” ἄλλην (adj sg fem acc) [other] is allos.

3. Christ’s Words on page 70.

Matthew 5:40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also.

καὶ τῷ θέλοντί σοι κριθῆναι καὶ τὸν χιτῶνά σου λαβεῖν, ἄφες αὐτῷ καὶ τὸ ἱμάτιον:

“and” καὶ (conj) [and if] is kai.

“the one” τῷ (art pl masc dat) [any man] is ho.

“for ...wanting” “θέλοντί (part sg pres act masc dat) [will] is thelo.


The verb that means “to be willing”, “to wish”, “to ordain”, “to decree”, “to be resolved to a purpose” and “to desire.” As an adjective, it means “wished for” and “desired.”

“you” σοι (pron 2nd sg dat) [thee] is su.

“to sue” κριθῆναι (aor inf pass) Sue...at the law] is krino.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“that” τὸν (art sg masc masc acc) [any man] is ho.

“shirt” χιτῶνά (noun sg masc masc acc) [coat] is chiton.


The noun that means “the garment worn next to the skin”, “tunic (a men’s)”, “a coating”, “a covering”, “a membrane (anatomical)”, “the upper part of a show”, “vesture,” and “coat of mail.”

“of yours” σου (adj sg masc gen) [thy] is  su/

“To take” λαβεῖν, (aor inf act ) [take away] is lambano.


The verb that means “to take”, “to receive”, “to apprehend with the senses”, “to take hold of,” and “to seize.” It is also specifically used to mean seized with emotion.”

“Let go” ἄφες (2nd sg aor imperat act) [Let...have] is aphiemi.

“of it” αὐτῷ (adj sg masc dat) [him] is autos.

“also” καὶ (conj) [also] is kai.

“the” τὸ (art sg neut acc) [thy] is ho.

“cloak” ἱμάτιον: (noun sg neut acc) [cloke] is himation.


A noun that means was an oblong piece of cloth worn as an outer garment. The term generally means “clothes” and “cloth.”

4. Christ’s Words on page 71. The

Matthew 5:41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain.

καὶ ὅστις σε ἀγγαρεύσει μίλιον ἕν, ὕπαγε μετ᾽ αὐτοῦ δύο.

“Even” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“those who” ὅστις (pron sg masc nom) [whoever] is hostis.

“you” σε (pron 2nd sg acc) [thee “ is from su.

“might press you into service” ἀγγαρεύσει [uncommon] (3rd sg aor subj act) subj act) [shall compel...to go] is aggareuo.”


The verb that means “to press into service.”

“a mile” μίλιον (noun sg neut acc ) [mile] is milion.


The noun that described the Roman mile, 8 stades, a thousand paces, about 80 yards less than our mile.

“One” ἕν, (noun sg neut acc) [one] is heis.

“Go” ὕπαγε (2nd sg pres imperat) [go] is hupago.

“with”  μετ᾽ (prep) [with] is meta.

“him” αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen) [him] is autos.

“For two” δύο. (numeral) [twain] is duo.


The numeral that means the number “two”, “a couple,” and “a pair.”

5. Christ’s Words on page 71.

Matthew 5:42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

τῷ αἰτοῦντί σε δός, καὶ τὸν θέλοντα ἀπὸ σοῦ δανίσασθαι μὴ ἀποστραφῇς.

“the one ” τῷ (art pl masc dat) [him that] is ho.

“asking” αἰτοῦντί (part sg pres act masc dat) [asketh] is aiteo.


A verb that means “to ask for”, “to demand”, “to beg of”, “to postulate or assume [in logic]”, “to claim,” and “to ask for one’s own use.” In passive, “to be asked” and “to have a thing begged from one.”

“from you” σε (pron 2nd sg acc) [thee] is su.

“give” δός, (2nd sg aor imperat act) [give] is didômi.

“also” ! καὶ ​ (conj)”And] is kai.

“for the one” τὸν (art  sg masc acc) [him that] is ho.

“wanting” θέλοντα ​ (part sg pres act masc acc) [would] is thelo.

“from” ἀπὸ ​(prep) [of] is apo.

“you” σοῦ (adj sg masc gen) [thee] is  su.

“to borrow” δανίσασθαι (aor inf mid) [borrow] is daneizo.


A verb that means “to put out to usury”, “to let out”, “to borrow,” and “to have lent out to one.”

“not want” μὴ (partic) [not] is me.

“You might...to turn yourself away” ἀποστραφῇς. (2nd sg aor subj pass ) [from...turn...thou away.] is apostrepho.


A verb that means “to turn back”, “to guide back”, “to turn away”, “to dissuade from”, “to bring back,” and “to recall.” In the passive, it means to “be turned back,” “turn oneself from”, “turn one’s face away from”, “abandon”, and “desert.”

6. Christ’s Words on page 72.

 Matthew 5:43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.

Ἠκούσατε ὅτι ἐρρέθη “Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου” καὶ μισήσεις τὸν ἐχθρόν σου.

“You have heard” Ἠκούσατε (2nd pl aor ind act ) [ye have heard] is akouo.

“that” ὅτι (adv) [that] is hoti.

“it was proclaimed” ἐρρέθη (3rd sg aor ind pass) [It hath been said,] is ero.”

“You should care for” “Ἀγαπήσεις (2nd sg aor subj act) [Love] is agapao


A verb that means “to be fond of”, “to greet with affection”, “to persuade”, “to caress”, “to prize”, “to desire”, “to be pleased with,” and “to be contented with.” This love is more associated with affection than passion. The Greek word for passionate love, especially in a sexual sense, is eros. The word is seldom associated with sexual love though Christ uses another word, phileô, which means “to love”, “to like”, “to be fond of doing,” and “to show affection” to express “love” in the sense of like and dislike.

“those” τὸν (art  sg masc acc) [him that] is ho.

“close” πλησίον (adj sg masc acc) [neighbor] is plesion.


An adjective taht means “close”, “near,”neighboring, “ and “one’s neighbor.”

“to you” σου” (pron 2nd sg gen) [thy] is  su.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“hate” μισήσεις (2nd sg aor subj) [hate] is miseo.


A verb that means “to hate” and in passive, “to be hated.”

“those hated” τὸν ἐχθρόν (adj sg masc acc) Enemy] is echthros.”

“of yours” σου. (pron 2nd sg gen) [thine] is  sou, which means “you” and “your.”

7. Christ’s Words on page 72.  Matthew 5:44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;

Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ προσεύχεσθε ὑπὲρτῶν διωκόντων ὑμᾶς:

“I myself” Ἐγὼ (pron sg 1st nom) [I] is ego.

“however” δὲ (partic) [but] is de.

“I am telling” λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) [say] is lego.

“you all” ὑμῖν (pron pl 2nd dat) [you] is su.

“care for” ἀγαπᾶτε (2nd pl pres imperat) [love] is agapao.

“those” τοὺς (art pl masc acc) [them that] is ho.

“hated” ἐχθροὺς (adj pl masc acc) [enemies] is echthros.

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron pl 2nd gen) [your] is su.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“pray” προσεύχεσθε (2nd pl pres imperat) [bless] is proseuchomai.

“for” ὑπὲρ (prep) [for] is hyper.


The preposition that means “over” (of place), “above’ (in a state of rest), “off’ (ships at sea), “over” and “across (in a state of motion), “over”, “beyond”, “on behalf of one (metaphor), “for”, “instead of”, “in the name of”, “as a representative of” (in an entreaty), “for” and “because of” (of the cause of motive), “concerning”, “exceeding” “above” and “beyond” (of measure), “above” and “upwards” (of numbers), “before” and “earlier than” (of time), “over much” and “beyond measure” (as an adverb), “for” and “in deference of” (doing a thing), and “above measure.”

“those” τῶν (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“hounding” διωκόντων (part pl pres act masc gen) [persecute] is dioko.

“you” ὑμᾶς: (pron pl 2nd acc) [you] is su.

8. Christ’s Words on page 73.

Matthew 5:45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.

ὅπως γένησθε υἱοὶ τοῦ πατρὸς ὑμῶν τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, ὅτι τὸν ἥλιον αὐτοῦ ἀνατέλλει ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχει ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶἀδίκους.

“In order that” ὅπως (conj) [that] is hopos.

“you might become”, γένησθε (2nd pl aor subj mid) [ye may be] is ginomai.

“children” υἱοὶ (noun pl masc nom) [children] is huios.

“of that” τῶν (art pl masc gen) [untranslated] is ho.

“Father” τοῦ πατρὸς (noun sg masc gen ) [father] is pater.

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron pl 2nd gen) [of your] is su.

“that one” τοῦ (article sg masc gen) [which] is ho.

“in” ἐν (prep) [in] is en.

“skies” οὐρανοῖς, (noun pl masc dat) [heaven] is ouranos.

“Because” ὅτι (adv) [for] is hoti.

“that sun” τὸν ἥλιον (noun sg masc acc ) [sun] is helios.


The noun that means the “sun”, “life”, “day”, “sunshine”, “the sun’s heat”, “brightness,” and the sun-god.

“of His” αὐτοῦ (adj sg masc gen ) [his] is autos.

“It rises” ἀνατέλλει (3rd sg pres ind act) [he maketh...to rise] is anatellô.


A verb that means “to rise”, “to make rise up”, “to give birth”, “to gush forth [water]”, “to bring forth”, “to spring up [plants]”, “rise [mountains],” and “to appear above the horizon [sun,moon].” “on” ἐπὶ (adv) [on] is epi.

“worthless one” πονηροὺς (adj pl masc acc ) [the evil] is poneros.

“and” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“the valuable” ἀγαθοὺς (adj pl masc acc) [the good] is agathos.

“Not only” καὶ [and] is kai.

“does He shower rain” βρέχει (3rd sg pres ind act) [sends rain] is brecho.


The verb that means “to wet”, “to moisten”, “to shower [with wealth]”, “to bath [in sweat]”, “to get drunk”, “to rain”, “to send rain,” and “to be filled with water.”

“on” ἐπὶ (conj) [on] is epi.

“the law-abiding”, δικαίους (adj pl masc acc) [just] is dikaios.


The adjective that means “observant of rules”, “observant of customs”, “well-ordered”, “civilized”, “equal”, “even,” “legally exact”, “precise,” and “observant of duty.” Later it means “well-balanced”, “impartial,” and “just.”

“But also” καὶ [and] is kai.

“law-breakers” ἀδίκους. (adj pl masc acc) [the unjust] is adikos.


The adjective that means “wrongdoing”, “unrighteous,” unjust”, “obstinate”, “unmanageable”, “unjust”, “unrighteous [of things],” and “one who play unfairly.”

9. Christ’s Words on page 74.  

Matthew 5:46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?

ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε;

οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;

“when” ἐὰν (conj) [if] is ean.

“Because” γὰρ (partic) [for] is gar.

“you care for” ἀγαπήσητε (2nd pl aor subj act) [ye love] is agapao,.

“those” τοὺς (art pl masc acc) [them which] is ho.

“caring for” ἀγαπῶντας (part pl pres act masc acc) [love] is agapao.

“you” ὑμᾶς, (pron pl 2nd acc) [you] is su.

“What” τίνα (pron sg masc/fem/neut acc) [what] is tis.

“compensation” μισθὸν (noun sg masc acc) [reward] is misthos.”

“do you get” ἔχετε; (2nd pl pres ind act) [have ye] is echo.

“Nothing, really” οὐχὶ (adv) [not] is ouchi.


The adverb that means “no”, “no truly”, “assuredly not”, “not however”, “nevertheless,” “notwithstanding”, “yet”, “still”, “never yet”, “for not”, “indeed”, “for surely not”, “no,—certainly not”, “for I don’t suppose,” and “for in no manner.”

“even” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“the” οἱ (art pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“tax collectors” τελῶναι (noun pl masc nom) [publicans] is telones.


The noun that means “farmer,” and “collector of toll, custom, and taxes.”

“the” τὸ (art  sg neut nom/acc ) [the] is ho.

“same way” αὐτὸ (adj sg neut nom/acc ) [same] is autos.

“do” ποιοῦσιν; (3rd pl pres ind act) [do] is poieo.

10. Christ’s Words on page 75.

Matthew 5:47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?

καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν;

“also” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“when” ἐὰν (conj) [if] is ean.

“you hug”  ἀσπάσησθε (2nd pl aor subj mp) [ye salute” is aspazomai.


The verb that  means “to welcome kindly”, “to greet”, “to be glad”, “to kiss”, “to embrace”, “to cling fondly to,” “to draw to one’s self”, “to follow eagerly [of things]”, “to cleave to [of things], “to receive with joy,” and “to salute [from a distance].”

“those” τοὺς (art pl masc acc) [untranslated] is ho.

“relatives” ἀδελφοὺς (noun pl masc acc ) [brethren] is adelphos.

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [your] is su.

“ only” μόνον, (adj sg neut nom/acc) [only] is monos.


An adjective that means “alone,””solitary,” “only,” “single,” “unique,” “made in one piece,” “without [someone],” “only [something]”, “unique”, “one above all others,” and “on one condition only.” “what” τί (pron sg neut nom/acc) [what] is tis.

“out of the ordinary” περισσὸν (adj sg neut nom/acc) [more] is perissos.

“are you doing” ποιεῖτε; (2nd pl pres ind act) [do] is poieo.

“Nothing, really” οὐχὶ (adv) [not] is ouchi.

“Even” καὶ (conj) [and] is kai.

“those” οἱ (art pl masc nom) [the] is ho.

“other ethnic groups” ἐθνικοὶ (adj pl masc nom) [publicans] is ethnikos.


The adjective that means “national”, “provincial”, “foriegn,” and “gentile.” It was used in the same way we would describe someone as an “ethnic” or “foreigner.” Foreigners, the Greeks and Romans, were the rulers of the nation in Christ’s time.

“do” ποιοῦσιν; (3rd pl pres ind act) [than others do] is poieo.

11. Christ’s Words on page 75.  

Matthew 5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

“Ἔσεσθε” οὖν ὑμεῖς “τέλειοι” ὡς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος τέλειός ἐστιν.

“You all will be”“Ἔσεσθε” (2nd pl fut ind mid) [be] is eimi.

“yourselves” ὑμεῖς (pron 2nd pl nom) [you] is su.

“Perfect” “τέλειοι” (adj pl masc nom) [perfect] is teleios.


The adjective that means “perfect”, “entire”, “complete”, “without spot or blemish”, “of full tally or number”, “fully constituted”, “valid”, “full-grown [of animals]”, “accomplished [of persons], “perfect in his kind,””absolute”, “final [of judgment]”, “fulfilled [of prayers],” “having power to fulfill prayer [of gods]”, “all-powerful”, “full point,” and as an adverb “finally”, “absolutely”, “with full authority”, “absolutely”, “thoroughly,” and “completely.”

“Like” ὡς (adv) [as] is hos.

“that” ὁ (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“Father” πατὴρ (noun sg masc nom ) [father] is pater.

“of yours” ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) [your] is su.

“the” ὁ (art sg masc nom) [untranslated] is ho.

“sky one” οὐράνιος (adj sg masc nom) [heaven] is ouranios.

“Perfect” τέλειός (adj sg masc nom ) [perfect] is teleios.

“He exists”ἐστιν.(verb 3rd sg pres ind act) [Is] is eimi.