Luke 13:5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Certainly not, I tell you! But if you don't want to change your mind at some time, all just the same, you are going to destroy yourselves. 

KJV : 

Luke 13:5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

In translated, this verse looks just like Luke 13:3, but there are two changes in the Greek that are hidden. One is just a change in tense. For most speakers, it is generally easier to repeat the same line than to a compose a slightly different one. We can either believe that Jesus was different in this regard or that he saw these changes as important, perhaps more precise. 

The word translated as "I tell" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak," but it also means "to teach," which seems to be the way Christ uses it more frequently. It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." Christ usually uses this word to refer to his own speaking or teaching.

The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc. 

The word translated as "nay" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly", "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather" or "except". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise".

Two Greek words are translated as "except" (the previous word, translated as "but" also can mean "except"). These words mean "if might not". The Greek word meaning "if might" indicates more of an expectation of something happening than "if" alone. This is often how we use the word "when". The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" to do something, not that it isn't done or don't think something that might be true. If it wasn't done or wasn't true, the objective negative of fact would be used.

The first change is to the tense of this verb. The word translated as "ye repent" has nothing to do with sin or, generally, with religion or asking for forgiveness. The Greek word translated as "repent" has a primary meaning of to understand something after the fact, with the sense of seeing it is too late. Is specific meaning is to "understand afterward," as seeing the truth after a mistake is made. From this idea, it comes to mean to change your mind, shifting your perspective.  In the earlier verse, it was the present tense. Here it is in the form that means "at some time". In other words, it means they can change their minds in the future as well as now. 

The word translated as "ye shall perish" means to destroy or demolish. The form describes something that in the future where the subject acting on themselves, "you are going to destroy yourselves."

The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

The next word that is changes is the "likewise". The earlier word was more common. Jesus seems to use this one to emphasize repeated actions so it is used here to describe a repeated line. 


Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

οὐχί, (partic) "Nay" is ouchi, an adverb which means "no", "no truly", "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," "notwithstanding", "yet", "still", "never yet", "for not", "indeed", "for surely not", "no,—certainly not", "for I don't suppose," and "for in no manner." --

λέγω (1st sg pres ind act) "I tell" is lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." --

ὑμῖν, (pron 2nd pl dat) "To you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." --

ἀλλ᾽ (adv) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." --

ἐὰν (conj) "Except" is ean, (with me below) which is a conditional particle (derived from ei (if)and an (might)) which makes reference to a time and experience in the future that introduces but does not determine an event. --

μὴ (partic) "Except" is me (with ean above), which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective.

μετανοήσητε  (verb 2nd pl aor subj act) "Ye repent," is from  metanoeo, which literally means "to perceive afterward", "to perceive too late", "to change one's mind", "to change one's purpose," and "to repent."

πάντες (adj pl masc nom) "All" is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." --

ὡσαύτως (adv) "Likewise' is from hōsautōswhich an adverb that means "in like manner," and "just so." It is literally "this the same."

ἀπολεῖσθε (verb 2nd pl fut ind mid) "Ye shall...perish" is apollymi, which means "to demolish", "to lay waste", "to lose", "to perish", "to die", "to cease to exist," and "to be undone." 

Front Page Date: 

May 18 2018