Luke 16:29 Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets;

Spoken to
audience

The parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus.

KJV

Luke 16:29 Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.

NIV

Luke 16:29  Abraham replied, ‘They have Moses and the Prophets; let them listen to them.’

LISTENERS HEARD

Abraham spoke, however, "They have Moses and the enlightened, they must listen to them. 

LOST IN TRANSLATION

The phrase translated as "let them hear/listen" is a verb in the form third-party command. We don't have this form in English, but the words "let them" makes this sound like it is addressed to the listener, asking a grant of permission. It is better translated as "They must hear/listen." 

"Prophets" is a Greek word adopted into English. It means "enlightened" or something similar from a root meaning "shining." 

GREEK ORDER

 

λέγει    δὲ            Ἀβραάμ  Ἔχουσι       Μωυσέα καὶ τοὺς προφήτας:    ἀκουσάτωσαν    αὐτῶν.
spoke, however, Abraham "They have Moses    and the   enlightened , they must listen to them. 

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES
5

Abraham saith(OS) unto him(OS), They have Moses and the prophets(UW); let(CW) them(WF) hear them.

  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "saith" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "unto him" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today. 
  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "prophets" means "luminaries." It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The verb "let" is not addressed to someone, it is a third-person command.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is the subject, "them ," not an object, "them".
# NIV TRANSLATION ISSUES
4
“Abraham replied(CW), ‘They have Moses and the Prophets(UW); let(CW) them(WF) hear them.
 
  • CW --Confusing Word -- "replied" is more specific than the word's more 
  • UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "prophets" means "luminaries." It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English.
  • CW --Confusing Word -- The verb "let" is not addressed to someone, it is a third-person command.
  • WF -- Wrong Form -  This is the subject, "them ," not an object, "them".
EACH WORD of KJV

Abraham  -- This is from the Greek spelling of "Abraham."

saith -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as this in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used. 

unto  him,  -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as this in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used. 

They -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

 have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "to indulge in," "keep close," "hold in," "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses.

Moses  -- "Moses" is from the Greek spelling of the name for the author of the first five books of the OT. Unlike most Hebrew names, Jesus sometimes adds Greek ending to it in the form of a first-declension Greek noun.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

 prophets;  -- (UW) The Greek word translated as "prophets" means "one who speaks for God," "interpreter" and was the highest level of priesthood in Egypt, but its root words mean "shine light before" and so "luminaries," "shining lights" or "enlightened" seems to capture the idea better. Jesus uses it to refer not only to divine spokespeople but their books in the OT.   It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English. It means "one who speaks for God", "interpreter" and was the highest level of priesthood in Egypt. It does not mean "one who sees the future" as it does in English. The sense is more a "luminary" because the Greek word comes from "light shining." Read this article for more information. 

let -- (CW) This "let" is the helping verb used to translate the Greek form of the third-person command. In English all commands are in the second person. This form is used as something like our word "must." Using "let" as the active verb, rather than a helper verb like "must," changes the subject from the third party to the second. 

 them  -- (WF) This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb. This is the subject, not an object. 

hear  -- "Hear" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear," "to hear of," and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.   It also means "to listen" and "to understand," but amusingly, it also means "to be silent."

them - -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek adjective that acts like our third-person pronoun. The form is the third person, plural in the genitive form. It is used as a possessive or the object of a verb or preposition.  As a preposition's object means a movement away from something or a position away from something else. This pronoun follows the noun so "of theirs."

EACH WORD of NIV
Abraham  -- This is from the Greek spelling of "Abraham."
 
replied,  (CW) The word translated as "replied" is the most common word that means "to say," "to tell," and "to speak,"  but when used with an objective noun or pronoun, the sense is "say of" or "speak of."    It also has many ancillary meanings such as "to count" ("to number" or like we might say, "to recount" a story) or "to choose for yourself." This translation is more specific than the word's meaning. general meaning.

They -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

 have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "to indulge in," "keep close," "hold in," "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses.

Moses  -- "Moses" is from the Greek spelling of the name for the author of the first five books of the OT. Unlike most Hebrew names, Jesus sometimes adds Greek ending to it in the form of a first-declension Greek noun.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

 Prophets;  -- (UW) The Greek word translated as "prophets" means "one who speaks for God," "interpreter" and was the highest level of priesthood in Egypt, but its root words mean "shine light before" and so "luminaries," "shining lights" or "enlightened" seems to capture the idea better. Jesus uses it to refer not only to divine spokespeople but their books in the OT.   It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English. It means "one who speaks for God", "interpreter" and was the highest level of priesthood in Egypt. It does not mean "one who sees the future" as it does in English. The sense is more a "luminary" because the Greek word comes from "light shining." Read this article for more information. 

let -- (CW) This "let" is the helping verb used to translate the Greek form of the third-person command. In English all commands are in the second person. This form is used as something like our word "must." Using "let" as the active verb, rather than a helper verb like "must," changes the subject from the third party to the second. 

 them  -- (WF) This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb. This is the subject, not an object. 

listen -- "Listen" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear," "to hear of," and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.   It also means "to listen" and "to understand," but amusingly, it also means "to be silent."

them - -- The word translated as "them" is the Greek adjective that acts like our third-person pronoun. The form is the third person, plural in the genitive form. It is used as a possessive or the object of a verb or preposition.  As a preposition's object means a movement away from something or a position away from something else. This pronoun follows the noun so "of theirs."

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV

λέγει [264 verses](verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "He saith" is lego, which means "to recount," "to tell over," "to say," "to speak," "to teach," "to mean," "boast of," "tell of," "recite," nominate," and "command." When used with an object is has the sense of "call by name."  It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself," "pick up," "gather," "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelled the same means "to lay," "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep." This word is more about making a statement than participating in a discussion. Translating is as "stated" might distinguish it better. When two accusative objects are used, the sense is  "say of him this," or "call him this." The form Jesus uses to describe his own speaking can be either indicative, "I say/tell" or subjunctive, "I should/could say/tell." 

δὲ [446 verses](conj) "But" is de which means "but," "yet," "however," and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be an explanation of an indirect cause ("so") and a condition ("if"). In an  "if" (εἰ) clause or temporal "when" (ὅταν) clause the sense is "if/when... then." In a series begun by men, it means "on the other hand." In a listing, the sense is "then" or "yet." After an interruption, "so then." It can also be an explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").  In a listing, the sense is "then" or "yet." After an interruption, "so then." -- The Greek word translated as "but" means "but," "yet," "however," and "on the other hand." It joins phrases in an adversarial way. Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

Ἀβραὰμ [18 verses](Hebrew name) "Abraham" is Abraam, which is the Greek form of "Abraham."

Ἔχουσι  [181 verses](verb 3rd pl pres ind act) "Have" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to indulge in,"  "to hold fast," "to hold in," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, it can mean "acquire," or "get." The main sense when it has an object is "to have" or "to hold." In reference to habits or states, it means "indulge in." With a gen. object,  "to keep back" or "withhold" a thing. When its object is an infinitive verb, it means "to have the means or power," or "to be able" not "it must" as in English.  This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English.Nor does it have the sense of "must" when used with infinitives. 

Μωυσέα 18 verses] (Hebrew Name sg masc acc) "Moses" is Moyses, which means "Moses."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just." In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as." 

τοὺς [821 verses](article pl masc acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").   It usually precedes a noun or changes the word it precedes (adjective, infinitive, participle, etc.) to act like a noun. When not preceding a a word that can become a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."  

προφήτας: [37 verses] (noun pl masc acc) "The prophets" is prophetes, which means "one who speaks for a god and interprets his will," "interpreter," "keepers of the oracle," "the highest level of priesthood in Egypt," "interpreter," and "herald." It is a form of the verb, prophao. which means "to shine light forth," or "to shine light before." Its roots are  pros ("before"), phos ("light) and  phaino ("shine.)

ἀκουσάτωσαν [95 verses](verb 3rd pl aor imperat act) "Let them hear" is akouo,  which means "hear of," "hear tell of," "what one actually hears," "know by hearsay," "listen to," "give ear to," "hear and understand," and "understand." The accusative object is the person/thing heard about, while the genitive is the person/thing heard from.  However, two genitives can be used with the sense of "hear of a thing from a person." -

αὐτῶν [86 verses](pron/adj pl masc/fem/neut gen) "Them" is auton, is the genitive case of the third-person, plural adjective that is used as a pronoun. The word also means "the same," "one's true self," and "the soul" as opposed to the body. It also means "of one's own accord." 

 

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