Luke 5:31 They that are whole need not a physician;

KJV Verse: 

Luke 5:31 They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.

Greek Verse: 

Literal Alternative: 

No need have those who are sound of a healer, but the illnesses those are having. [those having the illnesses]

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Again, this is translated to look like Matthew 9:12 and Mark 2:17. However, a key word is different. This verse contrasts the sound and weak. It uses a term that is often translated as a moral condemnation. The word translated as "need" is not a verb but a noun.  More about the word used for "the sick" in this article.

KJV Analysis: 

They that are: The Greek word translated as "They that are" means "to possess" or "to keep." It is almost always translated as "to have." This is not the common word used for "to be."

whole: The word translated as "they that are whole" is a verb that means "to be sound" both of body and of mind. It is different than the word translated as "whole" in Matthew and Mark, which is a different word that means  "to be strong", "to be able," or "to have power." It is in the form of an adjective, "being strong" but it is used as a noun, used as the sentence's subject. The "they that are" comes from the article used to make it a noun.

need: The word translated as "need" means "need" and "poverty," but it also means "familiarity" and "intimacy." It is not a verb, but a noun.

not: The Greek word translated as "no" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact.

a physician: The word translated as "of the physician" generally means "he who heals." It is in the form of a possessive, "of a healer." It has no article "the," and the "of" comes from its form so "of a healer." It is not the object of the verb "need" but a modified of the noun "need" so "need of a physician."

but: The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition based on the word "other" like we used "otherwise". It is not the most common word Christ uses that is translated as "but" a "gentler" form of opposition. The sense is "on the other hand".

they that are: The word translated as "They that are" means "to possess" or "to keep." It is almost always translated as "to have." It is translated as "have" above  It is in the form of an adjective, "having" used as a noun, "those having."

sick: The word translated as "sick" is an adjective which means many different forms of "bad," including "ugly", "low born", "craven," and "ill." In the NT, it is often translated as "evil." More about it in this article. It is used here as a noun. It is plural and the object of the prior verb. This is one of the few cases where standard Greek word order of putting the most important words first does not work well in English, even when spoken. The last phrase comes out as "those illnesses having" when the sense in English is "those having the illnesses.

Greek Vocabulary: 

Οὐ  (partic) "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

χρείαν  (noun sg fem acc) "Need" is from chreia, which means "need", "want", "poverty", "a request of a necessity", "business", "military service", "a business affair", "employment", "familiarity", "intimacy," and "maxim."

ἔχουσιν (3rd pl pres ind act) "They that are" is from echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

οἱ ὑγιαίνοντες (part pl pres act masc nom) "Whole" is from hygiaino. which means "to be sound", "to be of sound mind", "to be healthy", "to be in health," and a form of saying farewell.  

ἰατροῦ  (noun sg masc gen) "Physician" is from iatros, which means "one who heals", "medic", "surgeon," or "midwife."

ἀλλὰ (adv) "But" is from alla, which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay."

οἱ κακῶς (adj pl masc acc) "Sick" is from kakos, which means "bad", "mean", "base", "ugly", "ill-born", "evil", "worthless", "sorry", "pernicious," and "ill."

ἔχοντες: (part pl pres act masc nom) "They that are" is from echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

Wordplay: 

 The word translated as "sick" is commonly translated in the NT as "evil." 

Related Verses: 

Aug 31 2017