Mark 12:30 And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart...

KJV Verse: 

Mark 12:30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.

Greek Verse: 

Mark 12:30  καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον” “τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου.”

Deu 6:5 καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς δυνάμεώς σου

Literal Alternative: 

And you will care about the powerful, your God, out of the entirety of your whole heart, and out of the wholeness of your spirit, and out of the wholeness of your intelligence, and out of the wholeness of your strength of body, this [is] the prime directive.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse is identical to the Greek of the Septuagint  from Deuteronomy 6:5 is clearly related to Jesus's use of these words in his teaching about the make up of human nature, discussing in this article.

This is one of the clearest examples of the most common formation Jesus uses in his saying, the formation that we call "three plus one." This form captures the three temporal aspects of life (body=strength, mind=thought, and emotional relationships=heart) and the eternal aspect, the spiritual.

 

The most interesting aspect here is that Christ put "spirit" in the middle of the series. It usually appears at the beginning or end. The implication is that heart, that is, emotion, comes first in terms of our love of God.

KJV Analysis: 

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

Thou -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the following verb.

shalt  -- This helping verb seems to indicates that the following verb is the future tense or a command, but it is neither. It is in a form of possibility so "might" is more appropriate. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

love -- The Greek word translated as "love" means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection," and "to be contended with." This love is more associated with affection than passion. See this article on love for more information.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, but this article appears before the word for "God" not the word for "Lord." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Lord -- The word translated as "lord" means "having power" and "being in authority."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "God" so "of yours."

God -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "heart" so "of yours."

heart -- "Heart" is from the Greek word that means "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. However, this phrase can be read as defining the "heart" and both.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with --The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "soul" so "of yours."

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

soul, -- The word translated here as "soul" is a common word in Greek meaning "life", "soul", "consciousness," and "a sense of self." Christ uses it to mean primary "spirit" or "mind." This is especially clear here where "mind" is contrasted with "body". However, this also has the sense of contrasting the conscious mind (and memory) with the unconscious brain. This Greek word is our source of the English word "psyche." Read more about its meaning in this article.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually transalted as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

mind. -- "Mind" is from a word Christ rarely uses. It means "thought", "intention", "purpose,"and "meaning."

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- The Greek preposition translated as "with" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually transalted as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated -- The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

strength: -- "Strength" is a noun that means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

this is the first commandment. -- There is no Greek word that is translated as "this is the first commandment." in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

Ἀγαπήσεις (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Love" is from agapao, which means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", "to caress", "to prize", "to desire", "to be pleased with," and "to be contended with." "Agape" takes its modern meaning of "brotherly love" from the English translations of the New Testament.

Κύριον (noun sg masc acc) "Lord" is from kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

θεόν (noun sg masc acc) "God" is from theos, which means "God," the Deity."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos, which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

καρδίᾳ (verb 3rd sg pres subj act) "Heart" is from kardia, which means "heart (the physical organ)", "the seat of emotions (especially passion, rage, and anger)", "inclination", "desire," "purpose", "mind", "the pith (in wood), and "the deep (of the sea)."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos (holos), which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ψυχῇ (noun sg fem dat) "Soul" is from psyche, which means "breath", "life", "self", "spirit," and "soul." It has the clear sense of the conscious self and is often translated as "life" in the Gospels. It is also used to describe "the spirit" of things. It is often translated as "soul."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos (holos), which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

διανοίᾳ (noun sg fem dat) "Mind" is from dianoia, which means "thought", "intention", "purpose", "notion", "process of thinking", "thinking faculty," intelligence", "understanding", "thoughts expressed," and "meaning."

σου:”(pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

ὅλης (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is holos, which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῆς (article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἰσχύος  ( noun sg fem gen) "Strength" is ischys, which means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

σου:”(pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is possessive form of the second person pronoun.

Wordplay: 

The four repetitions here change a single word, repeating four Greek words in between them. The emphasis is on the "out of the wholeness of your" repetition.

Related Verses: 

Nov 29 2019