Mark 12:30 And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart...

Greek : 

Mark 12:30  καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον” “τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου.”

Deu 6:5 καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς δυνάμεώς σου

Literal Verse: 

And you should care about MASTER, that God of yours, in an whole heart of yours and in that whole spirit of yours, and in the whole intelligence of yours, and out of that whole strength of yours.

KJV : 

Mark 12:30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

Again, the key change of wording is lost in translation. Jesus repeats a phrase four times, but the final time he changes the preposition that introduce it. This change is erased in translation. One Preposition is used with heart, spirit, and mind. A different one is used with "strength" because that word specifically means "strength of the body." This clear separation between non-material and material aspects of life is lost in translation.

This verse is identical to the Greek of the Septuagint  from Deuteronomy 6:5 is clearly related to Jesus's use of these words in his teaching about the make up of human nature, discussing in this article.

NIV : 

Mark 12:30  Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.

NLT : 

Mark 12:30  And you must love the LORD your God with all your heart, all your soul, all your mind, and all your strength.

Wordplay: 

The four repetitions of "whole" here play with the different shades of meaning in the word. The first three repetitions are "in the wholeness," but the emphasis is on the final "out of the wholeness" because Jesus changes it as a punchline.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

Ἀγαπήσεις (verb 2nd sg aor subj act) "Love" is from agapao, which means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection", "to persuade", "to caress", "to prize", "to desire", "to be pleased with," and "to be contended with." "Agape" takes its modern meaning of "brotherly love" from the English translations of the New Testament.

Κύριον (noun sg masc acc) "Lord" is from kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family."

τὸν (article sg masc acc) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

θεόν (noun sg masc acc) "God" is from theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos, which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

καρδίᾳ (verb 3rd sg pres subj act) "Heart" is from kardia, which means "heart (the physical organ)", "the seat of emotions (especially passion, rage, and anger)", "inclination", "desire," "purpose", "mind", "the pith (in wood), and "the deep (of the sea)."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positiv with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with". -- The word translated as "in" also means "within", "with," or "among."

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos (holos), which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ψυχῇ (noun sg fem dat) "Soul" is from psyche, which means "breath", "life", "self", "spirit," and "soul." It has the clear sense of the conscious self and is often translated as "life" in the Gospels. It is also used to describe "the spirit" of things. It is often translated as "soul."

σου (pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐν "With" is from en, which means "in", "on", "at", "by", "among", "within", "surrounded by", "in one's hands", "in one's power," and "with".

ὅλῃ (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is from holos (holos), which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῇ (article sg fem dat)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

διανοίᾳ [2 verses](noun sg fem dat) "Mind" is from dianoia, which means "thought", "intention", "purpose", "notion", "process of thinking", "thinking faculty," intelligence", "understanding", "thoughts expressed," and "meaning."

σου:”(pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your."

καὶ "And" is from kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐξ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

ὅλης (adj sg fem dat) "Whole" is holos, which means "the whole", "entire", "complete", "complete in all its parts", "wholly", "altogether", "on the whole", "speaking generally", "utter," "actually", "really, "the universe," and "safe and sound."

τῆς (article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἰσχύος  [4 verses]( noun sg fem gen) "Strength" is ischys, which means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

σου:”(pron 2nd sg gen) "Thy" is from sou which means "you" and "your." -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person pronoun.

KJV Analysis: 

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

Thou -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the following verb.

shalt  -- This helping verb seems to indicate that the following verb is in a form of possibility so "should" is more appropriate. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

love -- The Greek word translated as "love" means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection," and "to be contended with." Jesus uses this word in the sense of "to be devoted to." See this article on love for more information.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, but this article appears before the word for "God" not the word for "Lord." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Lord -- The word translated as "lord" means "having power" and "being in authority." This is the word used to translate the Hebrew Yehovah, the name of God. 

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "God" so "of yours."

God -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "heart" so "of yours."

heart -- "Heart" is from the Greek word that means "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. However, this phrase can be read as defining the "heart" and both.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with --The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "soul" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

soul, -- The word translated here as "soul" is a common word in Greek meaning "life", "soul", "consciousness," and "a sense of self." Christ uses it to mean primary "spirit" or "mind." This is especially clear here where "mind" is contrasted with "body". However, this also has the sense of contrasting the conscious mind (and memory) with the unconscious brain. This Greek word is our source of the English word "psyche." Read more about its meaning in this article.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

mind. -- "Mind" is from a word Christ rarely uses. It means "thought", "intention", "purpose,"and "meaning."

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- (WW) The Greek preposition translated as "with" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

thy -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

strength: -- "Strength" is a noun that means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

this is the first commandment. --  (OS) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "this is the first commandment" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "with" means "out of."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "this is the first commandment" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.

NIV Analysis: 

untranslated "and"-- (MW) The untranslated word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

Love -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "love" means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection," and "to be contended with." Jesus uses this word in the sense of "to be devoted to." . See this article on the words for love for more information.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, but this article appears before the word for "God" not the word for "Lord." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

Lord -- The word translated as "lord" means "having power" and "being in authority." This is the word used to translate the Hebrew Yehovah, the name of God. 

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "God" so "of yours."

God -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "heart" so "of yours."

heart -- "Heart" is from the Greek word that means "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. However, this phrase can be read as defining the "heart" and both.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with --The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "soul" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

soul, -- The word translated here as "soul" is a common word in Greek meaning "life", "soul", "consciousness," and "a sense of self." Christ uses it to mean primary "spirit" or "mind." This is especially clear here where "mind" is contrasted with "body". However, this also has the sense of contrasting the conscious mind (and memory) with the unconscious brain. This Greek word is our source of the English word "psyche." Read more about its meaning in this article.

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

mind. -- "Mind" is from a word Christ rarely uses. It means "thought", "intention", "purpose,"and "meaning."

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

with -- The Greek preposition translated as "with" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

strength: -- "Strength" is a noun that means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "love" is not a command, but a suggestion, "you should love."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "with" means "out of."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

NLT Analysis: 

"And"-- The word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the following verb.

must -- (WW) This helping verb seems to indicates that the following verb is the  a command. It is in a form of possibility so "should" is more appropriate. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

love -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "love" means "to be fond of", "to greet with affection," and "to be contended with." Jesus uses this word in the sense of "to be devoted to." . See this article on the words for love for more information.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, but this article appears before the word for "God" not the word for "Lord." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

LORD -- The word translated as "lord" means "having power" and "being in authority." This is the word used to translate the Hebrew Yehovah, the name of God. 

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "God" so "of yours."

God -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

with -- The word translated as "with" in each of the three phrases means"in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "heart" so "of yours."

heart -- "Heart" is from the Greek word that means "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. However, this phrase can be read as defining the "heart" and both.

untranslated "and"-- (MW) The untranslated word  "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "in"-- (MW) The untranslated word   means "in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "soul" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

soul, -- The word translated here as "soul" is a common word in Greek meaning "life", "soul", "consciousness," and "a sense of self." Christ uses it to mean primary "spirit" or "mind." This is especially clear here where "mind" is contrasted with "body". However, this also has the sense of contrasting the conscious mind (and memory) with the unconscious brain. This Greek word is our source of the English word "psyche." Read more about its meaning in this article.

untranslated "and"-- (MW) The untranslated word   "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "im"-- (MW) The untranslated word  "in", "within", "with," or "among."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

mind. -- "Mind" is from a word Christ rarely uses. It means "thought", "intention", "purpose,"and "meaning."

and --The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also") and, in a series, as it is here, is often best translated as "not only...but also."

untranslated "out of"-- (MW) The untranslated word  means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

all -- The word translated as "all" in each of the three phrases means "whole", "entire," and "complete." This is not the common Greek word usually translated as "all."

your -- The word translated as "thy" is the possessive form of the second person, singular pronoun. This word appears after the word "mind" so "of yours."

untranslated "the"-- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

strength: -- "Strength" is a noun that means "strength of body", "might", "power", "brute force," and "motive force."

NLT Translation Issues: 

11
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "love" is not a command, but a suggestion, "you should love."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The preposition "in" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The preposition "in" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The conjunction "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "with" means "out of."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

This is one of the clearest examples of the most common structure that Jesus uses in his sayings. I call this structure "three plus one."  Here, the three non-material aspects of life (heart, spirit, mind) are contrasted with the physical (strength).

Front Page Date: 

Nov 29 2019