Mark 13:27 And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And then they are going to be sent, those  messengers and they are going to gather those chosen of his from the four winds out of a peak of an earth as far as a peak of a sky.

KJV : 

Mark 13:27  And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

All the translations add a "his" before the term for "angels" but no such "his" exists in the Greek. In other words, Jesus did not claim that the angels were his. The "elect" or "chosen ones" are described as "his."

The Greek word translated as "winds" is the source of the Latin word that means "spirit" and the different Latin word for "mind." The Greek word for "spirit" also means "breath," "blast," or "wind." Jesus only uses this word six times.

All translations both insert definite articles ("the") where there are none in the Greek and skips over  definite articles that are in the text.  Jesus usually uses the definite article before "earth" and "sky," but he doesn't use them here. Since the Greek article is more like our demonstrative article ("this") The absence of the article makes it seem like there are potentially many "uttermost points" and multiple "earths" and "heavens."

NIV : 

Mark 13:27  And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.

NLT : 

Mark 13:27 And he will send out his angels to gather his chosen ones from all over the world—from the farthest ends of the earth and heaven.

Wordplay: 

Two pairs of opposite actions are presented in the "sending of messengers," and "gathering of the chosen". Two opposing concepts of "extremes" contrast in the physical limits of the earth and the conceptual limits of the universe.

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

In ancient culture, the earth was understood as the physical and mundane, while "heaven" was understood as its opposite, the conceptual and universal. This is not our modern concept of "heaven" as the realm of God and angels. This can be clearly seen in this verse as the "angels" are sent out TO heaven not from heaven.

How can the chosen be gathered from the heavens? With our modern idea of heaven, we might think of these as the souls of the dead, but again, this was not the understanding of the times. At the time, people, including the Jews who believed in an afterlife, saw souls as dwelling in the underworld not the heavens. Christ's vision of this gathering of the chosen from heaven is very different from both modern and ancient conceptions though it obviously influenced our modern ideas.

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

τότε (adv) "Then" is tote, which means "at that time" and "then."

ἀποστελεῖ ( verb 3rd sg fut ind act ) "Send " is apostello, which means "to send off", "to send away," or "to dispatch." It is our source of the word "apostle."

τοὺς (article pl masc acc ) Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀγγέλους ( noun pl masc acc ) "Angels" is aggelos, which means "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use.

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἐπισυνάξει [5 verses]( verb 3rd sg fut ind act ) "Gather together" is from episynago, which means "to collect and bring to a place." It also means to "bring into" a conversation or to "infer" or "conclude."

τοὺς (article pl masc acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἐκλεκτοὺς ( adj pl masc acc ) "The elect's " is from eklektos, which means "picked out", "selected", "choice," and "pure."

[αὐτοῦ] (adj sg masc gen) "His" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

ἐκ (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

τῶν (article pl masc acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

τεσσάρων [2 verses]( noun pl masc gen ) "Four" is from tessares, which means "four."

ἀνέμων [6 verses]( noun pl masc gen ) "Winds" is from anemos, which means "wind", "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes.

ἀπ᾽ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.

ἄκρου [3 verses]( adj sg fem gen ) "Uttermost" is from akron, which means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

γῆς ( noun sg fem gen ) "Earth" is ge, which means "the element of earth", "land (country)", "arable land," "the ground", "the land and sea," and "the world" as the opposite of the sky.

ἕως (conj) "To" is heos which means "until", "till," and "in order that" and "up to the point that."

ἄκρου [3 verses]( adj sg fem gen ) "Uttermost" is from akron, which means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

οὐρανοῦ.”  ( noun sg masc gen ) "Heaven" is the Greek ouranos, which means "heaven as in the vault of the sky", "heaven as the seat of the gods", "the sky", "the universe," and "the climate."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

then -- The Greek word for "then" means "at this time" or "then".

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

send -- The "send forth" here is a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

his -- (OS) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "his" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

angels, -- "Angels" is a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

gather -- "Gather" is a verb which means "to collect and bring to a place." It also means to "bring into" a conversation or to "infer" or "conclude."

together -- This is from the root that means "together"of the previous verb.

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

elect  "Elect" is from an adjective that means "picked out", "select", "choice," and "pure." It is used as a noun there, "the ones selected."

from -- The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

four --  "Four" is a noun form of the word "four."

winds, "Winds" is the Greek noun that means "wind", "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

uttermost part -- "Uttermost point" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

earth -- -- The word translated as "earth" means "ground" and "dirt". Translated as "earth", it refers to the physical planet, not society, which Christ describes as the world. See this article for more on these words.

to -- The word translated as "to" means "until" but it also means "as far as." It is not one of the Greek prepositions normally translated as "to."

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

uttermost part -- "Uttermost point" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

heaven. -- The word translated as "heaven" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article.

KJV Translation Issues: 

6
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "his" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the one we used today.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

NIV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

untranslated "then"-- (MW) The untranslated word "then" means "at this time" or "then".

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

send -- The "send " here is a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

his -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "his" in the Greek source.

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

angels, -- "Angels" is a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

gather -- "Gather" is a verb which means "to collect and bring to a place." It also means to "bring into" a conversation or to "infer" or "conclude."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

elect  "Elect" is from an adjective that means "picked out", "select", "choice," and "pure." It is used as a noun there, "the ones selected."

from -- The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

four --  "Four" is a noun form of the word "four."

winds, "Winds" is the Greek noun that means "wind", "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

ends -- (WN) "Ends" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

earth -- -- The word translated as "earth" means "ground" and "dirt". Translated as "earth", it refers to the physical planet, not society, which Christ describes as the world. See this article for more on these words.

to -- The word translated as "to" means "until" but it also means "as far as." It is not one of the Greek prepositions normally translated as "to."

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

ends -- - (WN) "Ends" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

heavens.  -- (WN) The word translated as "heavens" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article. The word is singular, not plural in the Greek.

NIV Translation Issues: 

11
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "then" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "his" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "ends" is translated as plural but it is singular.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "ends" is translated as plural but it is singular.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "heavens" is translated as plural but it is singular.

NLT Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

untranslated "then"-- (MW) The untranslated word "then" means "at this time" or "then".

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the following verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the following verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translated the Greek verb forms into English.

send -- The "send " here is a word that means "to send off" and "dispatch." It is the source of our word "apostle."

his -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "his" in the Greek source.

untranslated -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

angels, -- "Angels" is a noun meaning "messenger" and "envoys" though it became to mean "semi-divine beings" in later use from its use in the NT.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as".

gather -- "Gather" is a verb which means "to collect and bring to a place." It also means to "bring into" a conversation or to "infer" or "conclude."

his -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

chosen -- "Chosen ones" is from an adjective that means "picked out", "select", "choice," and "pure." It is used as a noun there, "the ones selected."

ones -- The word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

from -- The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

all over -- (IP) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "all over" in the Greek source.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more.

world -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "world" in the Greek source.

untranslated "four"-- (MW) The untranslated word "four" is a noun form of the word "four."

untranslated "winds"-- (MW) The untranslated word "winds" is the Greek noun that means "wind", "a cardinal point," or "quarter." It means both the physical wind and the direction from which the wind comes.

from -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

farthest ends -- (WN) "Ends" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive nouns. 

the -- (IW) There are no Greek words that can be translated as "the" in the source we use today nor was there one in the source that the KJV translators used.

earth -- -- The word translated as "earth" means "ground" and "dirt". Translated as "earth", it refers to the physical planet, not society, which Christ describes as the world. See this article for more on these words.

and -- (IW) There is no Greek word that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source.

untranslated "to"-- (MW) The untranslated word "to" means "until" but it also means "as far as." It is not one of the Greek prepositions normally translated as "to."

untranslated "highest"-- (MW) The untranslated word "highest" is a noun that means "highest", "furthest point", "mountain top", "peak", "headland", "extremity," and "end."

heaven.  -- The word translated as "heavens" means sky, the climate, and the universe. It also meant the home of the gods in a physical sense: the sun, moon, and planets were named for the gods. More about the word in this article.

NLT Translation Issues: 

12
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "then" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "his" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The article "the" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase -- The word "all over" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "world" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "four" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "winds" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "farthest ends" is translated as plural but it is singular.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "to" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "highest" is not shown in the English translation.

Front Page Date: 

Jan 1 2020