Common Translation Issues

- This completes the meaning of the verb. It is from the prefix.

-- (CW)  This is not the word usually translated as "through." CW --Confusing Word -- The "through" is not the common word usually translated as "through."

-- (CW)  This is not the precise meaning of the word. CW --Confusing Word -- The "through" does not capture the word's specific meaning.

missing "word"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  MW - Missing Word -- The word "word" is not shown in the English translation.

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun. Without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  - missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just." -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

-- This object is used to capture the meaning of the verb.

-- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

missing "will"  -- (MW) The helping vcrb, "will," is needed to show the future tense of the verb. MW -- Missing Word -- This verb is the future tense, which requires a "will" before the verb.

missing "have"  -- (MW) The helping vcrb, "have," is needed to show the past perfect tense of the verb. MW -- Missing Word -- This verb is the past perfect tense, which requires a "have" before the verb.

missing "by/for yourself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act on "yourself," "for yourself" or "by yourself." WV -- Wrong Voice -- This verb is a middle voice, which requires a "by/for themselves" or a "themselves" as an object. 

missing "by/for myself"-- (WV) A phrase is necessary because the form of the previous verb is a middle voice, which means that the subject is to  act on "myself," "for myself" or "by myself." WV -- Wrong Voice --This verb is a middle voice, which requires a "by/for myself" or a "myself" as an object.

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself." . MW -- Missing Word -- This subject pronoun duplicates information in the verb so it needs a "myself" after "I" for emphasis.

missing "for themselves" -- (MW)  The middle voice of the verb indicates that the subject does something to, for, or by themselves. MW -- Missing Word -- This verb is a middle voice, which requires a "by/for themselves" or a "themselves" as an object. 

missing "should" or "might"-- (MW) A helping verb is necessary because the following verb is a verb of possibility, a subjunctive, something that "should" or "might" occur. The helping verb is not needed in a clause beginning with an "if" or a "when." MW -- Missing Word -- This verb is a subjunctive, which requires a "should" or "might" when outside of a when/if clause.

missing "yourself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "you yourself." MW -- Missing Word -- This subject pronoun duplicates information in the verb so it needs a "yourself" after "you" for emphasis.

missing "yourselves"  ---- (MW) The pronoun is used here explicitly as the subject of the sentence. Since this information is already in the verb, the sense is repetitive as we say "you yourselves." MW -- Missing Word -- This subject pronoun duplicates information in the verb so it needs a "yourselves" after "you" for emphasis.

missing "it must" or "let"-- (MW) A helping verb is necessary because the following verb is a third-person command, which is a verb that demands that something acts or happens in a certain way.

missing "to"-- (MW) The dative case of the following word requires the addition of a preposition in English, but the translator must decide which preposition to use:  a  "to,"  "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at" or "on," can all be used depending on the context. MW -- Missing Word -- This dative word requires a preposition to capture its meaning.

The verb is singular because the plural subject,"meats," is neuter and, in Greek, a plural neuter subject is treated as a single collection.

-- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek sourceIW - Inserted Word -- The word "it" doesn't exist in the source.

that -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "that" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle. IW - Inserted Word -- The word "that" doesn't exist in the source.

-- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source. IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.

-- (CW) This is not the common word usually translated as "anyone."

-- (WM) This is not a simple statement, but a verb form ("mood") of something that might or should happen.

-- (WN) This word is not plural but singular. This word is not singular but plural.

ISSUES

WF -- Wrong Form -  The "left" is not an active verb but a participle, "leaving."

WF -- Wrong Form -  The "him" is not the object of the verb but the subject, "he."

WF --Wrong Form -  The "can" is not a helping verb but an active verb, "have power" or "have the ability."

WF --Wrong Form -  The "enter" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to enter."

WF --  Wrong Form -  The "may" indicates a subjunctive verb form, but the verb is a third-person command.

WF --Wrong Form -  The "give" is not in the form of command but something that "should" or "might" be done.

am? - (WF) The verb "am" here is the common infinitive form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition.  The infinitive form has no information about the subject, number, or mood as do most Greek verbs. It has only voice and tense.

CT --Confusing Tense -- The "will" is not necessarily the future tense and could be a possibility.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "but" is not the common word usually translated as "but."

CW --Confusing Word -- The "if" does not capture the word's specific meaning.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "bidden" is the same word translated as "call" above.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "love" is one of two different Greek words translated as "love," but they mean different things.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "scriptures" implies a meaning not in the word.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "word" is not the Greek word for "word" but one that means "idea."

CW --Confusing Word -- The "not" is the subjective negative of opinion with the sense of "not wanting," "not thinking" or not seeming when used with a non-opinion verb.

CW --Confusing Word -- The "not" is both negatives together with the sense of "never."

CW --Confusing Word -- The word translated as "if" has more of a probability of "if" alone, more like our "when."

CW --Confusing Word -- The word translated as "do" is not the helper verb but means "make" or "perform."

CT -- Confusing Tense -- This English verb could indicate the past, but the tense is the present.

WW --Wrong Word -- The word translated as "lo" should be something more like "look."

MW --Missing Word -- The word "the" is not shown in the English translation.

MW --Missing Word -- The word "for themselves" is not shown in the English translation to capture the middle voice of the verb.

MW --Missing Word -- The helping verb "will" is needed to show the future tense of the verse.

MW --Missing Word -- The verb is a third-person command, which required either an "it must" or "let" as a helping verb.

MW --Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "heaven" is not shown in the English translation.

MW --Missing Word -- The word "yourselves" is not shown in the English translation, but it is needed to capture the pronoun as well as the form of the verb.

MW - Missing Word -- The word "should" needed from the form of the verb is not shown in the English translation.

MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

HN -- Number Number -- This verb is a change from plural to a singular verb as Jesus comes from addressing the crowd to a single person.

IW --Inserted Word -- The word "he" doesn't exist in the source.

IP --Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "for them" doesn't exist in the source.

WM  --Wrong Mood  - The verb "believe" is translated as a command, but the Greek word is not a command.

WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "and" doesn't appear here but before the verb for rest.

WP -- Wrongly Placed -- The word "not" doesn't negate "judge" but "came."

WT --Wrong Tense - The English verb  "see" is the present tense, but Greek is in the simple (imperfect) past. "saw."

WT --Wrong Tense - The English verb "see" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have seen."

WN  --Wrong Number- The word "believe" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.

WN  --Wrong Number- The word "heaven" is translated as singular but the Greek word is plural, "skies."

WV  --Wrong Voice - The verb in the middle voice requires the concept of "yourselves" as its object.

WV --Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as passive but it is active.

WV --Wrong Voice - The verb here is translated as active but it is passive.

MM -- Many Meanings -- This word has several different meanings that work here and is a form of wordplay.

UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "synagogues" means "meeting." It is an untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

UW --Untranslated Word -- The word "prophets" means "shining light" or "oracle." It is the untranslated Greek word adopted into English.

ARTICLES

(article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

(article)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." -- untranslated "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, "the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

the -- There is no Greek article "the" here in the source, but the noun is plural and in English, an article is used before plural nouns in phrases like this.

the -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "the" in the Greek source. A singular noun without a definite article should have an indefinite article, "a" not the definite article, "the." IW - Inserted Word -- The word "the" doesn't exist in the source.

a -- There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a noun doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation.

PRONOUNS

O -- This is added to indicate that the following word is in the form of address, using it as a term to identify someone.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

We -- This is from the first-person, plural form of the verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, singular form of the verb.

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

you - This is from the second-personal pronoun in the form of a subject, which emphasizes it because this information is already in the verb. The sense is "you yourselves."

Ye - This is from the vocative form of the noun that means it names the person being talked to.

she -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

things -- Though the subject is plural, the verb is singular because neuter plural verbs are treated as a collective.

things  - There is no word, "things," in the Greek source, but this word comes from the neuter, plural form of the previous adjective.

he -- The subject of the clause in Greek is in the form of an object because the verb in the clause is an infinitive.

him -- This English objective pronoun is added and not in the Greek source.   In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

thee: -- The word translated as "thee" is the form of the second person pronoun required by the preposition to show motion.

thee: -- The word translated as "thee" is the form of the second person pronoun required by the preposition to show a position.

more -- This is from the comparative form of the adjective.

HELPING VERBS

do -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English.

did -- This helping verb is added to make this a negative sentence.

can -- (CW) The Greek verb translated as "can" means "to have an ability" and "to have a power" to do something. Unlike the English "can," it is not a "helper" verb but the main verb of the sentence.

is -- This helping verb is added to make this a question, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

is -- This helping verb indicates the present tense of the verb. It is used here to form the present, progressive tense, which doesn't exist in Greek but which can smooth the flow of English sentences.

is -- There is no verb "is" here in the Greek source but it is implied by the noun in the form of a subject having no verb associated with it.

be -- This helping verb "be" indicates that the verb is passive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- (WW) This helping verb "be" seems to indicate that the verb is passive but it isn't. It is a verb form that indicates the subject is acting on itself.  Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- There is no verb "to be" here in the Greek. However, when nouns, pronouns or adjectives appear in the form of a subject without a verb, the verb "to be" can be assumed.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. A "might" or "should" could work here or nothing at all in an "if/when" clause which implies a possibility.  Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form. CW - Confusing Word - This "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice.

shall -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "shall" in the Greek source. The following verb is not the future tense nor in a form that requires a "might" or "should." IW - Inserted Word -- The word "shall" doesn't exist in the source.

may -- This helping verb "may" indicates that the verb indicates a possibility, the subjunctive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

may -- (WF) This indicates that the following verb is a subjunctive but it isn't that form. Since this is a third-person command, this should be an "it must" or a "let" because it commands that something to act or happen in a certain way.

must -- The helping verb "must" here indicates that this is a third-person command.

must -- (WW) The helping verb here should be either "should" or "might" because it comes from the subjunctive form of the verb.

make -- This verb doesn't exist in the Greek, but it is used to transform the Greek verb into a verbal phrase.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here. WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here. WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "has" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).

have -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

have -- (WW) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here. However, this word is in the form indicating that it is likely, so a "should" or "might" should appear here.

had -- This helping verb "had" indicates that the verb is the past tense, but the verb is not the past but a form that indicates a specific point in time, past, present, or future.

should -- This helping verb in English comes from the form of the Greek verb that indicates a possibility. We would usually say "might" or "should" in English.

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb but a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

let -- This "let" is the helping verb used to translate the Greek form of the third-person command. In English all commands are in the second person. This form is used as something like our word "must." Using "let" as the active verb, rather than a helper verb like "must," changes the subject from the third party to the second.

untranslated "for"  -- (MW) The verb is the Greek middle voice that indicates that subjects act "for" or "on" themselves.  Some English transitive verbs require a reflexive pronoun ("itself," "themselves" etc.) after the verb to capture this meaning.

know -- (HW) The word translated as "know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the phrase "I see" to mean "I know" in English. However, though "know" works, not using it primary meaning hides the wordplay with the different word meaning "see" that starts the verse.

VERB PREFIXES

from -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "from."

after -- (WW) This prep/adverb is from the verb's prefix but the prefix means "from" not "after."

ADDED WORDS

before now -- The pluperfect tense means something completed before some other action in the past. There is a special case with the pluperfect of the verb, eido, whose perfect tense means "know." The pluperfect forms its simple past tense, "knew." 

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context. The case can indicate a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "about" (or "for" or "against") indicating interest, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of effect. -

him -- There is no Greek pronoun here, but Greek does not need pronouns when the object can be assumed from the context. In English, they are added for the subject-verb-object form of our sentences.

things -- This "things"  is from the plural, neuter form of the previous adjective.

man -- This "man" is from the masculine, singular form of the previous word.

and -- These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation.

than -- This word "than"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  In comparisons, the sense is "than."

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession. However, it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. In reference to time, it could instead be translated as "during," "at," or "within."

's  -- The apostrophe "s" comes from the noun's genitive form. This case usually requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession for which an apostrophe "s" can be substituted. However, it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the Greek definite article,"the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one."  It is included because the Hebrew word has no word ending to show its role in the sentences so an article is needed.This could be considered a missing word, but "of" is the role it serves in the sentence.

to -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context. The case can indicate a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "about" (or "for" or "against") indicating interest, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, "at" or "on" a time, and an "in" for area of effect. -

The Unrecorded Dialogue Theory explains this by proposing that these words were spoken as part of a discussion where only Jesus's part of the discussion is captured. -

ISSUES

-- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "also" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used. OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "behold" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today.

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

wilt - (CW) "Wilt" is from a verb that means "to be resolved to a purpose" and "to desire." The "purpose" meaning is important because of the next word. It is not the helping verb "will" that indicates the future tense.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

will  -- (WT) This helping verb "will" indicates the future tense, but the verb is not the future. WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "will" indicates the future tense, but that is not the tense here.

will -- (WW) This helping verb indicates that the verb is the future tense, but it isn't. It is in the form of possibility so it needs a "should" or "might." WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "will" should be something more like "should."

left -- (WF)  The form of the word is not an active verb but a participle, a verb in the form of an adjective, "leaving."

Verb Number

Greek verb number agrees with the grammatical number of the subject. Some nouns may describe a collective, but if they in a singular form grammatically, the verb is singular. The exception is that neuter plural subjects often (but not always) take singular verbs. The exceptions are when items that are numbered, numerals, nouns acting as individual agents, and the words for "many and all" πάντα and πολλά. Pronouns and adjectives are seldom exceptions.

As in English, multiple nouns (compound subjects) take a plural verb. If one of the subjects is the first person, the verb is first-person. If one of the subjects is second-person, the verb is second-person. It is rare that a compound subject will be handled as a single unit like "the heaven and earth" taking a singular verb. However, in poetic use, multiple nouns in a compound subject take a singular verb when the verb primarily goes with the nearest or most important subject in the compound. A singular verb also appears when the compound subject presents what is clearly one concept.

 

3rd-Person Commands

In English, all commands are the second person, given to the person addressed. However, in Greek, the imperative form, used for both commands and requests, can be "given" to an object. This is usually translated in the Bible into a second-person command beginning with "let...." followed by the command verb with the subject as its object. When we see a "let," however, we cannot assume a third-person command because a very common verb also translated as "let" in the sense of "let her alone." Adding the "let" turns the third-person command, a strong statement of desire, into a weak second-person command for something to be allowed. However, often the third-person form of the verb is disregarded entirely. This is true, for example, in the Lord's Prayer, which begins with a series of third-person commands.

There are two better approaches to translation. One is to add a helping verb "may" to the beginning of a declarative sentence. "May that name of yours be made holy. May that kingdom of yours show up." However, this makes the verb look a little-bit like a subjunctive, something that could or should happen. Perhaps the best approach is to use the helping verb "must." "The name of yours must be made holy. That kingdom of yours must show up." There is a verb in Greek that is translated as "must," but it actually means "it is needed," so correctly translated there is no confusion between the verb and the verb form.

Dative Case

The dative case has several uses in ancient Greek 1) the indirect object of an action ("Matthew gave his Gospel...to all.") 2) the instrumental dative ("Matthew wrote...with a pen.") 3) the location (in time or place) dative (...in Judea.") 4) to declare a purpose (]..as a testimony"), 5) a benefit ( ."..for our benefit"); 6) possession (."..of his own") 7) an agent (."..by himself") and 8) a comparison (."..as the longest") 9) area of affect ("in the sphere of men") -- The form of this word requires the addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of effect.

Genitive Case

The genitive is always used with some prepositions and verbs, but it is also used for many other things including 1) the attribute genitive (functioning as an adjective), 2) the possessive genitive ("belonging to"), 3) the partitive genitive ("which is part of"), 4) the apposition genitive (same thing as head noun, i.e. "which is"), 5) the descriptive genitive ("described by'), 6) the genitive of comparison ("than" when used with "more," "less," etc.), 7) subjective genitive ("or") with participle ("coming of the son" becomes "the son comes" , 8) objective (‘for’, ‘about’, ‘concerning’, ‘toward’ or ‘against’) only with transitive noun ("blasphemy of the spirit" to "blasphemy against the spirit"), 9) absolute: a participle and noun at the beginning of a sentence ("while") 8) of time ("during," "within") of a word indicating time. -- The form of this word requires that addition of extra words in English to capture its meaning.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of," "which is," "than" (in comparisons), or  "for," "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

The genitive absolute is a noun and a genitive particle at the beginning of a sentence, the action happening at the same time as the action of the sentence. Best translation with a "while" or a "during."

Accusative

The accusative absolute is a participle of impersonal verbs (those not having a noun or pronoun as a subject)  at the beginning of a sentence, These phrases provide more information about the verb, often actions happening at the same time with the sense of "during" and  "while."

The word Jesus used th

An Adverbial Accusative when an accusative adjective is used to quantify (or limit) the action of a verb. An adverbial accusative may be used to express a limitation by indicating: measure, distance, the time, the manner , a reference point.

A false double accusative assumes an "is" between the two words. The  second acts a a predicate to the first, that is, something affirmed or denied.

A true double accusative has two objects to the verb. This is limited to verbs of:

  • teaching, reminding
  • clothing, anointing
  • inquiring, asking
  • other types of causative ideas

Infinitive Clause Noun Forms: Usually, the Greek SUBJECT of the infinitive is rendered in the ACCUSATIVE case. The object is also accusative. If the infinitive has the SAME SUBJECT as that of the main verb it can leave it out or the subject of the infinitive, or renders it in the NOMINATIVE for emphasis. The infinitive verb usually comes last.

Objects of Prepositions

Various Greek prepositions (words like "into," "after," "from," etc.) may take objects of a specific case (genitive, dative, and accusative) only. However, several important ones take objects in different cases The meaning of the preposition phrase changes with the form of the object. (See this article for more detail.) Whether the preposition takes a single case or several, below are the general sense of how the Greek works.

  • A genitive object means a movement away from something or a position away from something else. The time sense of a genitive object is that the event occurred within a specified time.
  • A dative object implies no movement but in a fixed position. Event occurs at a specified time or while the action was being performed.
  • An accusative object indicates movement towards something or a position reached as a result of that movement. Event may show the amount of time

The Middle and Passive

The Middle voice indicates that someone is acting on themselves or for their own benefit or by themselves. "He washed himself." There are several forms. See this article.

The Middle Passive voice is a verb form that can be either the middle voice or a passive voice. In transitive verbs, it acts as a passive: "he is washed" but for non-transitive verbs, it is acts as the middle voice "he rested for his benefit" or "he rested himself."

  1. Reflexive: "I wash (myself)." This reflexive sense could also carry a sense of benefaction for the subject, as in the sentence "I sacrificed a goat (for my own benefit)."
  2. Reciprocal: "to fight" (with active) vs. "to fight each other" (with mp).
  3. Autocausative: describes situations where the subject causes itself to change state.
  4. State of Being. With verbs relating to standing, sitting, reclining, being afraid, being ashamed, and being pleased, etc.
  5. Intensive: "to be a citizen" (with active) vs. "to do the duties of being a citizen" (with middle).
  6. In deponent verbs that have not active form, for example, "to follow."
  7. Combined with the subjunctive to form the future tense of the verb "to be" in Classical Greek.

Infinitive Form

Complementary Infinitive: These infinitives are often described as completing the meaning of verbs of ability, desire, intention, will, and the like.

Articular:  form called the GERUND. Like infinitives, gerunds function as nouns, including serving as subjects or objects of a verb, or as objects of a preposition. English adds –ing to a verb to form this part of speech.

Indirect Statement: The construction used depends upon the verb of mental activity– sayingthinkingperceiving – that introduces the indirect statement.

Until/Before"The conjunction πρίν means until or before. To distinguish between the two meanings, Greek uses two different constructions. "Until" takss the finite verb. "Before" takes the infinitive.

Result Clause with ὥστε: A result clause indicates the result of the action of the main clause. If the clause shows the actual result, it takes a finite verb. If the clause shows an INTENDED/EXPECTED/PROBABLE/NATURAL result, it takes an infinitive.

SPEAKING: After a verb of speaking it can be translated either as an active verb ("be" or "am") and an infinite, "to be."

Infinitive Clause Noun Forms: Usually, the Greek SUBJECT of the infinitive is rendered in the ACCUSATIVE case. The object is also accusative. If the infinitive has the SAME SUBJECT as that of the main verb it can leave it out or  the subject of the infinitive, or renders it in the NOMINATIVE for emphasis. The infinitive verb usually comes last.

Optative Mood

Expresses as wish "If only..." or "Would that..." or a potential of future possibility "I would be happy to dine with you." Largely died out in the koine, but survives in some phrases.

If/Then Statements (Conditional Sentences)

General Conditionals ('if anytime X, then always Y) Repetitive nature

  • Present general ("'If it rains, the streets get wet.'")  IF: eãn + subj. THEN: present indicative
  • Past general ('If  he commanded, they would always act") IF: ei + opt. THEN: imperfect indicative (sometimes with ên)

Specific Conditional ('if X happens, then Y')

  • neuter ('If X is indeed true, then Y.') IF: ei + any indicative THEN: any indicative
  • Contrary-to-fact ('If pigs had wings, they could fly.') IF: ei + indicative II THEN: indicative II + an
  • Future Probable ('If I find out, I'll let you know.') IF: eãn + subj. THEN:  future indicative/imperative/other 
  • Future Possible ('Should X happen, then Y would.') IF: ei + opt. THEN: optative + a