John 10:16 And other sheep I have,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Jesus says that those belonging to him know him and he them. And the Father and he know each other and his self covers his followers.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

I also keep different sheep, which aren't from this pen, this on. It is necessary for me to lead those there also. They will hear this voice of mine and they will become one flock one shepherd.

My Takeaway: 

One is not really a lonely number.

KJV : 

John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

NIV : 

John 10:16 I have other sheep that are not of this sheep pen. I must bring them also. They too will listen to my voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd.

What is Lost in Translation: 

The end of this verse is mistranslated. It does not say "shall be." It says "shall become." The Greek word "be" means staying in the same state while "become" means to change your state.  The word translated as "fold" and "sheep pen" means a pen more than a fold. The word translated as "flock" is only used twice by Jesus. There is no "and" between the "one flock" and "one shepherd." So the two words act a bit like adjectives for each other: a "one-flock shepherd" and a "one-shepherd flock." Jesus uses the word "one"not just as a number but to mean "united."

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

The word "flock" is a metaphor for humanity. The word "shepherd" also means "leader." Jesus uses the word "one" to mean "united."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἀλλὰ [34 verses](adj pl neut acc) "Other" is allos, which means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further," "of other sort," "other than what is," "untrue," "unreal," "other than right," "wrong," "bad," "unworthy," [with an article] "the rest," "all besides," and [in series] "one...another."

πρόβατα [26 verses](noun pl neut acc) "Sheep" is probaton, which means any domesticated four-footed animal, "sheep," "cattle," "herds," and "flocks.

ἔχω  [181 verses](1st sg pres ind act) "I have" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to hold fast," "to hold in," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, it can mean "acquire," or "get." The main sense when it has an object is "to have" or "to hold." It can also mean "to without" or "keep back" a thing. 

[294 verses](pron pl neut acc) "Which" is hos, which means "this," "that," "he," "she," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings

οὐκ [269 verses](partic) "Not" is ou , the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences.  The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἐστίν.[614 verses](3rd sg pres ind act) "Are" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

ἐκ [121 verses] (prep) "From" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of," "from," "by," "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond," "outside of," "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after," "from;" 4) [of rest] "on," "in," 5) [of time] "since," "from," "at," "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of," "made from;" 6) cause, instrument, or means "by."

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

αὐλῆς [3 verses](noun sg fem gen)  "Fold" is from aule, which means "courtyard", "court", "housing for domesticated animals", "central courtyard of a house," generally, "dwelling", "abode", "chamber."

ταύτης: [96 verses](adj sg fem gen) "These things" "These things" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these," "this," "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

κἀκεῖνα [107 verses](adj adj pl neut nom/acc) "Them" is ekeinos, which means "the person there," "that person," "that thing," and, in the form of an adverb, "in that case," "in that way," "at that place," and "in that manner."

δεῖ [28 verses](verb 3rd sg imperf ind act) "Must" is dei, which means "needful," and "there is need."

με [49 verses](pron 1st sg masc acc) "Me" is eme, which is the objective first-person, objective, singular pronoun that means  "me."

ἀγαγεῖν, [13 verses] (verb aor inf act) "Bring" is ago, which means to "lead," "carry," "bring," "fetch," "take with one," "carry of," "bear up," "remove," "lead to a point," "lead," "guide," "manage," "refer," "bring up," "train," "educate," "reduce," "draw out (in length)," "hold," "celebrate," "observe (a date)," "pass (Time)," "hold account," "treat," "draw down (in the scale)," and "weight."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

τῆς [821 verses](article sg fem gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

φωνῆς [13 verses] (noun sg fem gen) "Sound" is phone, which means "sound", "tone", "sound of a voice", "speech", "voice", "utterance", "cry" [of animals], "sounds" [of inanimate objects], "faculty of speech", "phrase", "saying", "rumor," and "report." -

μου [239 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Me" is from mou (emou), which means "me," and "mine." As a genitive object means movement away from something or a position away from something else.

ἀκούσουσιν[95 verses] (verb 3rd pl fut ind act or 3rd pl aor subj act) "They shall hear" is akouo,  which means "hear of," "hear tell of," "what one actually hears," "know by hearsay," "listen to," "give ear to," "hear and understand," and "understand." The accusative object is the person/thing heard about, while the genitive is the person/thing heard from.  However, two genitives can be used with the sense of "hear of a thing from a person." -

καὶ -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

γενήσονται [117 verses](3rd pl fut ind mid) "There shall be" is ginomai, which means "to become," "to come into being," "to happen," of things "to be produced," of events "happen," "take place," "come to pass," "to be engaged in," math "to be multiplied into," "become one of," "turn into."and "to be." It means changing into a new state of being. When the participle takes a predicate, the sense is "coming into" something. It is the complementary opposite of the verb "to be" (eimi) which indicates existence in the same state.

μία  [85 verses](noun sg fem nom) "One" is heis, which means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same." This adjective is irregular, having a number of forms depending on gender and case.

ποίμνη [2 verses](noun sg fem nom) "Flock" is from poimne, which means "flock" specifically of sheep.

εἷς [85 verses](noun sg masc nom) "One" is heis, which means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same." This adjective is irregular, having a number of forms depending on gender and case. 

ποιμήν.” [8 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Shepherd" is from poimen, which means "herdsmen," "shepherd," and, generally, "captain," and "chief."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

other --  The word translated as "other" means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further." 

sheep -- "Sheep" is Christ's symbol for his followers. The Greek word refers to any domesticated animal and works better if translated simply as "flock" or "herd." The flock follows the shepherd, which is above them. It is also together, a united group.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

have, -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives.

which . -- The word translated as "which" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

are -- The verb "are" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause.

of -- (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." The word has a number of different meanings based upon its context. However, in Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases that are translated into English "of" phrases.

this -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. It follows the noun so it repeats the idea of the noun as "this one."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article,"the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

fold: -   (CW) "Fold" is from a noun that means "courtyard", "court", "housing for domesticated animals", "central courtyard of a house," generally, "dwelling", "abode", "chamber." It is not the word translated as "fold" later in the verse.

them -- The word translated as "those" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there." Used a pronoun, the sense is "that one there" or "this one here." Used in the form of an adverb,  it means "in that case," "in that way," "at that place," and "in that manner."

also -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "also" in the Greek source.

I -- (WF) "I" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek as the object of the verb or preposition. It is not the subject of the following verb.

must -- (WF) The Greek verb translated as "must" is a special verb that means  "it is needful," and "there is a need." It is always singular, 3rd person. It can also mean "to lack." It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed. It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed. It means "it is necessary" or "it is needed." It can take both a noun object, "for me," and an infinitive verb as its object, "to do" something.

bring, - (WF) "Bring" is a Greek verb that means "to lead," "to carry," or "to fetch" and has a lot of different specific meanings in different contexts. Not all of these are negative, for example, this phrase could mean "guided." I

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

they -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

hear -- "Hear" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb Jesus Christ uses meaning "to hear." It also means "to listen" and "to understand," but amusingly, it also means "to be silent." The accusative object is the person/thing heard about, while the genitive is the person/thing heard from.  Here, the "voice" is not what is heard but what is heard "from.

my .-- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article,"the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

voice; - -- The noun translated as "call"  means "sound", "speech", "voice",  "cry" [of animals], "sounds" [of inanimate objects], and "report."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

there -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- (WW) The word translated as "be" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. When applied to events, this word means "to happen" or "take place." For things, it can be "to be produced." When the participle takes a predicate, the sense is "coming into" something.

one -- The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person.

fold, -- The word translated as "fold" is from the same root as "shepherd" and "sheep" so it is more like our word "sheepfold."

and - (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source.

one -- The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person.

shepherd. "Shepherd" is a noun that means "herdsmen," "shepherd," and, generally, "captain," and "chief."

KJV Translation Issues: 

10
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "of" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "fold" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "fold" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "also" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "I" is not the subject by the object, "for me."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "must" is not a helper verb but the active verb.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "bring" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to lead."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "voice" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "be" should be something more like "become."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.

NIV Analysis: 

missing "and"  -- (MW) The untranslated word  "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the following verb.

have, -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives.

other --  The word translated as "other" means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further." 

sheep -- "Sheep" is Christ's symbol for his followers. The Greek word refers to any domesticated animal and works better if translated simply as "flock" or "herd." The flock follows the shepherd, which is above them. It is also together, a united group.

that . -- The word translated as "that" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

are -- The verb "are" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause.

of -- (CW) The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." The word has a number of different meanings based upon its context. However, in Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases that are translated into English "of" phrases.

this -- The "this" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. It follows the noun so it repeats the idea of the noun as "this one."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article,"the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

sheep pen: -   "Sheep pen" is from a noun that means "courtyard", "court", "housing for domesticated animals", "central courtyard of a house," generally, "dwelling", "abode", "chamber." It is not the word translated as "fold" later in the verse.

I -- (WF) "I" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek as the object of the verb or preposition. It is not the subject of the following verb.

must -- (WF) The Greek verb translated as "must" is a special verb that means  "it is needful," and "there is a need." It is always singular, 3rd person. It can also mean "to lack." It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed. It works something like our word "must" but its form is fixed. It means "it is necessary" or "it is needed." It can take both a noun object, "for me," and an infinitive verb as its object, "to do" something.

bring, - (WF) "Bring" is a Greek verb that means "to lead," "to carry," or "to fetch" and has a lot of different specific meanings in different contexts. Not all of these are negative, for example, this phrase could mean "guided."

them -- The word translated as "those" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there." Used a pronoun, the sense is "that one there" or "this one here." Used in the form of an adverb,  it means "in that case," "in that way," "at that place," and "in that manner."

also -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

They -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense or a form that indicates possibility at some time. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

too  - (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "too" in the Greek source.

listen -- "Listen" is from a Greek verb that means "to hear" and "to listen." It has the same sense as the English not only of listening but of understanding.  It is the most common verb Jesus Christ uses meaning "to hear." It also means "to listen" and "to understand," but amusingly, it also means "to be silent." The accusative object is the person/thing heard about, while the genitive is the person/thing heard from.  Here, the "voice" is not what is heard but what is heard "from.

to -- This word "to"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession but with "listen" "to" works best.

my .-- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article,"the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

voice; - -- The noun translated as "call"  means "sound", "speech", "voice",  "cry" [of animals], "sounds" [of inanimate objects], and "report."

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also."

there -- This is from the third-person, plural form of the verb.

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be -- (WW) The word translated as "be" means "to become," that is, to enter into a new state. In Greek, especially as used by Jesus, it is the opposite of "being," which is existence in the current state. When applied to events, this word means "to happen" or "take place." For things, it can be "to be produced." When the participle takes a predicate, the sense is "coming into" something.

one -- The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person.

flock, -- The word translated as "flock" is from the same root as "shepherd" and "sheep" so it is more like our word "sheepfold."

and - (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "and" in the Greek source.

one -- The Greek word translated as "one " means "one" (as opposed to other numbers), "single," and "one and the same."As in English, it can be used as a pronoun, meaning a single person.

shepherd. "Shepherd" is a noun that means "herdsmen," "shepherd," and, generally, "captain," and "chief."

NIV Translation Issues: 

10
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "and" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "of" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "sheep pen" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "also" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "I" is not the subject by the object, "for me."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "must" is not a helper verb but the active verb.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "bring" is not an active verb but an infinitive, "to lead."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "voice" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "be" should be something more like "become."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source.

Front Page Date: 

Jul 10 2022