John 12:48 He that rejecteth me,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

Jesus talks about trusting the one who sent him, seeing his Father in him, and lighting a light.Then Jesus says he has not come to judge the world but to save it.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

The one denying me and not wanting to get these remarks of mine has the one judging him. The message that I passed on, this one here, judges him during that final day.

My Takeaway: 

If you don't want Jesus's words, you can't get his logic.

KJV : 

John 12:48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.

NIV : 

John 12:48 There is a judge for the one who rejects me and does not accept my words; the very words I have spoken will condemn them at the last day.

What is Lost in Translation: 

Two different Greek nouns are translated as "words" and "word." Translating them as the same is misleading, but the NIV translation of the second as "these very words" is very misleading. The first, "words," if from a Greek noun that means "remarks." This is the word used in the quote, "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God."  The second noun means "idea," "logic," or "message." This is the verb that is usually translated as "word" in the Bible, but it is the source of our English word "logic."  So Jesus said that we are judged, not by his "very" words, but by their underlying logic. However, as we see here, we cannot understand his logic if we don't honestly "get" his words.

This brings us to the humor lost in this verse. The verb translated as "receive" and "accept" works a lot like the English word, "get." It means both "take" and "receive," but it also means "getting" the idea. So, someone who doesn't "get" his remarks, doesn't get the idea he is offering. The negative used with "get" means "not wanting" or "not thinking" something. Those not wanting his remarks certainly don't get them.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "He" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

ἀθετῶν [3 verses](part sg pres act masc nom) "He that rejecteth" is atheteo, which means "to deny", "to disprove", "to cancel", "to render ineffective," and to "break faith with."

ἐμὲ [49 verses](pron 1st sg masc acc) "Me" is eme, which is the objective first-person, objective, singular pronoun that means  "me."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

μὴ [447 verses](partic) "Not" is me , which is the negative used in prohibitions and expressions of doubt meaning "not" and "no." As οὐ (ou) negates fact and statement; μή rejects, οὐ denies; μή is relative, οὐ absolute; μή subjective, οὐ objective. With pres. or aor. subj. used in a warning or statement of fear, "take care" It can be the conjunction "lest" or "for fear that." Used before tis with an imperative to express a will or wish for something in independent sentences and, with subjunctives, to express prohibitions.

λαμβάνων [54 verse](part sg pres act masc nom) "Receiveth" " is lambano means to "take," "take hold of," "grasp," "seize," "catch," "overtake," "find out," "detect," "take as,"  in Logic, "assume," "take for granted," "understand," "undertake," "take in," "hold," "get," "receive [things]," "receive hospitably," "receive in marriage," "receive as produce," "profit," "admit," "initiate," "take hold of," "lay hold on," "seize and keep hold of," "obtain possession of," "lay hands upon," "find fault with," "censure," "to apprehend with the senses," and "to take hold of." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

τὰ [821 verses](article  pl neut acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

ῥήματά [10 verses](noun pl neut acc) "Word" is rhema, which means "that which is spoken," "word," "saying," "word for word," "subject of speech," and "matter."

μου [239 verses](adj sg masc gen) "Me" is from mou (emou), which means "me," and "mine." As a genitive object means movement away from something or a position away from something else.

ἔχει: [181 verses](3rd sg pres ind act) "Hath" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to hold fast," "to hold in," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, it can mean "acquire," or "get." The main sense when it has an object is "to have" or "to hold." It can also mean "to without" or "keep back" a thing. 

τὸν[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "One" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

κρίνοντα [21 verses] (part sg pres act masc acc) "That judgeth" is krino, which primarily means "to separate," "to put asunder," and "to distinguish." It has a lot of other secondary meanings, including "to pick out," "to choose," "to decide" disputes or accounts, "to win" a battle, "to judge" especially in the sense of "estimate," "to expound," or "to interpret" in a particular way.

αὐτόν: [720 verses] (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

λόγος, [80 verses](noun sg masc nom) "Word" is logos, which means "word," "computation," "relation," "explanation," "law," "rule of conduct," "continuous statement," "tradition," "discussion," "reckoning," "reputation" (when applied to people), and "value."

ὃν [294 verses](pron sg masc acc) "That" is hos, which means "this," "that," "he," "she," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

ἐλάλησα [49 verses](1st sg aor ind act) "I have spoken" is laleo, which means "to talk," "to speak" "to prattle," "to chat," and [for oracles] "to proclaim." It also means "chatter" as the opposite of articulate speech. However, Jesus seems to use in in the sense of "relaying" information gained from another. 

ἐκεῖνος [107 verses](adj sg masc nom) "That" is ekeinos, which means "the person there," "that person," "that thing," and, in the form of an adverb, "in that case," "in that way," "at that place," and "in that manner."

κρινεῖ [21 verses](verb 3rd sg pres/fut ind act or 3rd sg aor subj act/pass ) "Shall judge" is krino, which primarily means "to separate," "to put asunder," and "to distinguish." It has a lot of other secondary meanings, including "to pick out," "to choose," "to decide" disputes or accounts, "to win" a battle, "to judge" especially in the sense of "estimate," "to expound," or "to interpret" in a particular way.

αὐτόν: [720 verses] (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is en, which means, with a dative object, "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," "during,"  and "with." With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for." Referring to time, it means. "in the course of" or "during." 

τῇ [821 verses](article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐσχάτῃ [21 verses](adj sg fem dat) "Last" is eschatos. In space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending."

ἡμέρᾳ: [96 verses](noun sg fem dat) "Days" is hemera, which, as a noun, means "day" "a state or time of life," "a time (poetic)," "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet," "tame (animals)," "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

KJV Analysis: 

He  -- (CW) The word translated as "he" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

that -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "that" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle.

rejecteth   - (WF) The Greek word translated as "rejects" means "to deny", "to disapprove of," and "to break faith" with someone.  This is a participle, not an active verb.

me, -- "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek as the object of the verb or preposition.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

receiveth --- (WF) The word translated as "receive" primarily means "take." However, it means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. Among these are the ideas of "understanding" and "possessing." This is a participle, not an active verb.

not --  The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" or "think" something, not that it isn't done or thought.   With the verb "to be," the sense is "doesn't seem." When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words. This is the negative used with commands or requests. Used with an imperative to express a will or wish. Used in negative "when" and "if" clauses.

my -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

words, -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "words" is not logos, the Greek word that is almost always translated as "word(s)" in the Gospels, but rhema, which specifically means spoken words, that is, a saying. The English word "remarks" is the same base and captures this idea well.

hath -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives.

one -- The word translated as "one" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

that -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "that" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle.

judgeth -- (WF) The term used here for "judge" means "judge," "criticize," "decide," "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context. No English word corresponds to it precisely. It is often helpful to think of its primary meaning are the action of "to separate." This is a participle, "judging."

him: -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

word -- (WW) "Word" is translated from a Greek word that means "calculation," or "reasoning," but it has many, many specific meanings from "deliberation" to "narrative."  It is the source of our word "logic" and is the root word for all the English words that end in "-ology." Most biblical translations translated it as "word" for somewhat poetic reasons. However, when applied to people, it means "repute" or "reputation." More about this word in this article. In English, we would say "idea" to describe it but it also means the communication of various types, so "message" often works better.

that -- The word translated as "that" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

spoken, -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "spoken" is not the ordinary "to say" or "to speak" in Greek. This word means both "idle chatter," "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "pass on" or "relay" information because that captures both someone gossiping and an oracle does. The word is somewhat self-effacing.

the same -- (CW) The word translated as "the same" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there." Used a pronoun, the sense is "that one there."

shall -- This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the verb form could also be the present tense.

judge  -- The term used here for "judge" means "judge," "criticize," "decide," "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context. No English word corresponds to it precisely. It is often helpful to think of its primary meaning are the action of "to separate."

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. 

in -- (CW) The word translated as "in" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time),  or "among"  with a dative object as the one here.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

last -- "Last" is from an adjective that, in space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." If the context is the previous verse, it can refer to distance or people so it means "furthest" or "meanest." However, clearly, its use is intended for a double meaning, meaning both. KJV English has a double meaning as well, but it is not quite the same.

day. -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

KJV Translation Issues: 

12
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "he" is not the common word usually translated as "he."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "that" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "rejecteth" is not an active verb but a participle, "denying."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "receiveth" is not an active verb but a participle, "getting."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "words" is not the common word usually translated as "words."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "that" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "judgeth" is not an active verb but a participle, "judging."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "word" should be something more like "message."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "spoken" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "the same" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "in" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.

NIV Analysis: 

There -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "there" in the Greek source.

is -- (WW) The word translated as"has" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "hold in," "have means to do,""to have due to one,"or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as the helper verb does in English. Nor does it has the sense of "must" when used with infinitives.

a-- (WW) The word translated as "a"is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the."See this article for more.

judge -- (WF) The term used here for "judge" means "judge," "criticize," "decide," "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context. No English word corresponds to it precisely. It is often helpful to think of its primary meaning are the action of "to separate." This is a participle, "judging."

missing "him"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.

for -- (IW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "for" in the Greek source.

the one --The word translated as "the one" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the."See this article for more.

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle.

rejects - (WF) The Greek word translated as "rejects" means "to deny", "to disapprove of," and "to break faith" with someone. This is a participle, not an active verb.

me, -- "Me" is the regular first-person pronoun in Greek as the object of the verb or preposition.

and-- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

does -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English.

not -- The negative used here is the Greek negative of a subjective opinion, commands, and requests. The sense is that "you don't want" or "think" something, not that it isn't done or thought. With the verb "to be," the sense is "doesn't seem." When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words. This is the negative used with commands or requests. Used with an imperative to express a will or wish. Used in negative "when" and "if" clauses.

accept --- (WF) The word translated as "accept" primarily means "take." However, it means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. Among these are the ideas of "understanding" and "possessing." This is a participle, not an active verb.

my -- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun.This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine."

words, -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "words" is not logos, the Greek word that is almost always translated as "word(s)" in the Gospels, but rhema, which specifically means spoken words, that is, a saying. The English word "remarks" is the same base and captures this idea well.

the -- The word translated as "the"is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the."See this article for more.

very -- (CW) The word translated as "very" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there." Used a pronoun, the sense is "that one there."

words -- (WW, WN) "Word" is translated from a Greek word that means "calculation," or "reasoning," but it has many, many specific meanings from "deliberation" to "narrative." It is the source of our word "logic" and is the root word for all the English words that end in "-ology." Most biblical translations translated it as "word" for somewhat poetic reasons.However, when applied to people, it means "repute" or "reputation." More about this word in this article. In English, we would say "idea" to describe it but it also means the communication of various types, so "message" often works better. The word is singular not plural.

missing "that"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "that" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have -- (WT) This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

spoken,-- (CW) The Greek word translated as "spoken" is not the ordinary "to say" or "to speak" in Greek. This word means both "idle chatter," "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "pass on" or "relay" informationbecause that captures both someone gossiping and an oracle does. The word is somewhat self-effacing.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. However, the verb form could also be the present tense.

condemn -- (WW) The term used here for "condemn" means "judge," "criticize," "decide," "discriminate," and "separate," depending on the context. No English word corresponds to it precisely. It is often helpful to think of its primary meaning are the action of "to separate." This is the root of the word meaning "condemn."

them-- (WN) The word translated as "them" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. It is singular, not plural.

them at the last day.

at -- (CW) The word translated as "at" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time), or "among" with a dative object as the one here.

the -- The word translated as "the"is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the."See this article for more.

last --"Last" is from an adjective that, in space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." If the context is the previous verse, it can refer to distance or people so it means "furthest" or "meanest." However, clearly, its use is intended for a double meaning, meaning both. KJV English has a double meaning as well, but it is not quite the same.

day. -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

NIV Translation Issues: 

17
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "there is" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "a" should be something more like "the one."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "judge" is not a noun but a participle "judging."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "him" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "for" doesn't exist in the source.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "rejects" is not an active verb but a participle, "denying."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "accept" is not an active verb but a participle, "getting."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "words" is not the common word usually translated as "words."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "very" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "words" should be something more like "message."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "words" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "that" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "spoken" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "condemn" should be something more like "judge."
  • WN  - Wrong Number- The word "them" is translated as plural but the Greek word is singular.

Front Page Date: 

Aug 27 2022