John 14:16 And I will pray the Father,

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

At the Last Supper, Jesus gives his final message to the apostles.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And I will question the Father and he will give you another assistant who may be with you until the era.

My Takeaway: 

We always need another helper.

KJV : 

John 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;

NIV : 

John 14:16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another advocate to help you and be with you forever—

What is Lost in Translation: 

The verb translated as "pray/ask" here is not a verb that means "pray" nor is it the verb translated as "ask" in John 14:14. The earlier verb has the sense of asking for something while this one means more the sense of asking a question, for information. The word translated as "comforter/advocate" is actually an adjective, meaing "assisting" or "summoned." The phrase translated as "forever" doesn't mean that. It means literally "until the age" or "up to the lifetime."  See this article for more.

Wordplay: 

 The multiple meanings of the first word, κἀγὼ, add a lot of depth to this verse. 

Greek Vocabulary: 

κἀγὼ [31 verses](pron 1st sg masc nom ) "And...I" is kago, a contraction of kai-ego. "And" is kai-, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἐρωτήσω [17 verses](verb 1st sg fut ind act or 1st sg aor subj act) "I will pray" is from erotaowhich means "to ask," "beg," or "to question."

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πατέρα [191 verses](noun sg masc acc) "Father" is pater, which means "father," "grandfather," "author," "parent," and "forefathers."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἄλλον [34 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Another" is allos, which means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further," "of other sort," "other than what is," "untrue," "unreal," "other than right," "wrong," "bad," "unworthy," [with an article] "the rest," "all besides," and [in series] "one...another."

παράκλητον [4 verses](adj sg masc nom/acc) "Comforter" is from parakletos, which is an adjective that means "called to one's aid", "assisting in legal maters", "acting as an advocate", and "summoned."

δώσει [147 verses](verb 3rd sg fut ind act) "Shall give" is didomi, which means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe."

ὑμῖν [289 verses](pron 2nd pl dat) "To you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

ἵνα [134 verses](adv/conj) "That" is hina, which means "in that place," "there," "where," "when,"  but when beginning a phrase "that," "in order that," "when," and "because."

[614 verses](verb 3rd sg pres subj act) "Abide" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

μεθ᾽ [103 verses](prep) "With" is meta, which means "with," "in the midst of," "among," "between," "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," "in one's dealings with," "into the middle of," "coming into," "in pursuit of," "after," "behind," "according to,"  "after," "behind,"  and "next afterward." With genitive,  it means generally, "with," "together with," "in the midst of," "among," "between." "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," and "in conjunction with." With dative, "between," "among," "in company with," with a number "complete," and "over and above." With accusative, generally, "among" and "between" as with dative, of motion, "into the middle of," "coming into or among," "in pursuit or quest of," of place, "after," "behind," of time, "after," "next to,"  of worth/rank, "next after," of ideas, "after," "according to." 

ὑμῶν [168 verses](pron 2nd pl gen) "Your/you" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." It is either a possessive pronoun or the object of a preposition.

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "For-" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

αἰῶνα, [41 verses](noun sg masc acc) "-Ever" is aion, which means "life," "lifetime," "age," or "generation."

KJV Analysis: 

And I -- -- This is from a contraction of the conjunction "and" and the subject pronoun "I". Since the verb is already in the first person, that addition of the pronoun is like saying "and I myself," emphasizing the first- person speaker.  "I" is -ego, which is the first-person singular pronoun meaning "I." It also means "I at least," "for my part," "indeed," and "for myself."

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. However, the verb could also be  in the form of possibility where a "might" or "should" is the helping verb. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

pray   -- (WW) The word translated as "pray" means "to ask"  "to beg," or "to question."  It means to "ask about a thing" or "the question a person." It is different from the "ask" in John 14:14, which means to ask for something.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article; without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Father, -- "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers." It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. This is a little confusing because the helping verb "will" was used above.

give -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

you  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc. As the object of a preposition, this form implies no movement, but in a fixed position or events occur at a specified time or while action was being performed.

another --  The word translated as "another" means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further."  In a series, this means "one...another."

Comforter, -- "Comforter" is an adjective that means "called to one's aid", "assisting in legal matters", "acting as an advocate", and "summoned."

that  -- The word translated as "that" is a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause  "that," "in order that" or "because." -- The word translated as "there" is an adverb "in that place," "there," "where," or "when."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

may -- This helping verb "may" indicates that the verb indicates a possibility, the subjunctive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

abide -- (OS) The verb "abide" here was a different verb in the KJV source. Today this verb "be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions is best translated that way.

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of." It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

you -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun follows the noun so the possessive "of yours." Here, it is the object of the previous preposition. As an object of a preposition, the genitive indicates movement away or a position away from something.

for --  (WW) The word translated as "for" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "as much as (of measure or limit)," "in regards to" a subject, "up to" limits in time and measure, and "for" a purpose or object. Here, it refers to time so "until."

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

ever; -- (CW) "Ever" is from aiôn, which means "lifetime," "life," "a space of time," "an age," an epoch," and "the present world."  See this article on the phrase translated as "forever."

KJV Translation Issues: 

6
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "pray" should be something more like "question."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" is the same tense helping word translated as "will" above.
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "abide" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "for" should be something more like "until."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "era" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "ever" does not capture the word's specific meaning.

NIV Analysis: 

And I -- -- This is from a contraction of the conjunction "and" and the subject pronoun "I". Since the verb is already in the first person, that addition of the pronoun is like saying "and I myself," emphasizing the first-person speaker.  "I" is -ego, which is the first-person singular pronoun meaning "I." It also means "I at least," "for my part," "indeed," and "for myself."

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. However, the verb could also be  in the form of possibility where a "might" or "should" is the helping verb. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

ask-- (CW) The word translated as "ask" means "to ask"  "to beg," or "to question."  It means to "ask about a thing" or "the question a person." It is different from the "ask" in John 14:14, which means to ask for something.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article; without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

Father, -- "Father" is the Greek noun that means "father" or any male ancestor so "forefathers." It is the word that Christ uses to address his own Father.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is best translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

will -- This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

give -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

you  -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc. As the object of a preposition, this form implies no movement, but in a fixed position or events occur at a specified time or while action was being performed.

another --  The word translated as "another" means "another," "one besides," "of another sort," "different," "other than what is true," "as well," "besides," with numerals: "yet," "still," "further."  In a series, this means "one...another."

advocate , -- "Advocate" is an adjective that means "called to one's aid", "assisting in legal matters", "acting as an advocate", and "summoned."

to help you and -- (IP) There is nothing that can be translated as "to help you and" in the Greek source.

missing "that"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "that" is a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause  "that," "in order that" or "because." -- The word translated as "there" is an adverb "in that place," "there," "where," or "when."

missing "may"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "that""may" indicates that the verb indicates a possibility, the subjunctive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

be —-- The "be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." The word also means "to exist" and where it doesn't connect to characteristics or conditions is best translated that way.

with -- "With" is the Greek word that usually means "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of." It also refers to "after" or "behind" when referring to a place, time, or pursuit.

you -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun follows the noun so the possessive "of yours." Here, it is the object of the previous preposition. As an object of a preposition, the genitive indicates movement away or a position away from something.

for --  (WW) The word translated as "for" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "as much as (of measure or limit)," "in regards to" a subject, "up to" limits in time and measure, and "for" a purpose or object. Here, it refers to time so "until."

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

ever; -- (CW) "Ever" is from aiôn, which means "lifetime," "life," "a space of time," "an age," an epoch," and "the present world."  See this article on the phrase translated as "forever."

NIV Translation Issues: 

7
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "ask" is a different word than the one translated as "ask" in John 14:14.
  • IP - Inserted Phrase-- The phrase "to help you and" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "may" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "for" should be something more like "until."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "era" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "ever" does not capture the word's specific meaning.

Front Page Date: 

Oct 4 2022