John 16:6 But because I have said these things unto you,

Spoken to: 

Apostles

Context: 

After the Last Supper, after Jesus says the Apostles shouldn't ask where he is going.

KJV : 

John 16:6 But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow has filled your heart.

Literal Verse: 

Instead, because these things I have relayed to you, the pain has filled yours, the heart.

What is Lost in Translation: 

A nice verse that the KJV distorts, but the NIV tears up and tosses away. First, it begins with a retake of the catchphrase, "these things I have told you," which is better translated as "these things I have relayed to you." The use of this phrase here is discussed in John 16:4, but here Jesus changes it. It is has the word "because" following it, but here is begins with the "because."

The main distortion in both English translations is the word translated as "sorrow" and "grief." This word means "pain." Jesus makes this clear in  John 16:21, where it is associated with childbirth, which is "pain," not "sorrow." There is another common word in Greek that means "sorrow," but Jesus never uses it, which in itself is interesting.

Another interesting feature here is that both the "pain" and the "heart" it fills are both singular nouns, but they are shared by a group of people. When Jesus talks about emotions, they are shared by a group, something we discuss more in this article about "heart."

My Takeaway: 

Our pain and emotion are bigger than we are, so they are best shared.

Greek : 

Original Word Order: 

Instead, because I have relayed these things to you, the pain has filled yours, the heart.

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἀλλ᾽ [154 verses](conj) "But" is alla, which means "instead," "otherwise," "but," "still," "at least," "except," "yet," nevertheless," "rather," "moreover," and "nay."

ὅτι [332 verses](adv/conj) "That" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that," "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

ταῦτα [96 verses](adj pl neut acc) "These things" is tauta, which is a referring pronoun meaning "these," "this," "that," and "here." It can mean the nearer or the further depending on usage. As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

λελάληκα [49 verses](verb 1st sg perf ind act) "I have said" is laleo, which means "to talk," "to speak" "to prattle," "to chat," and [for oracles] "to proclaim." It also means "chatter" as the opposite of articulate speech. However, Jesus seems to use in in the sense of "relaying" information gained from another. 

ὑμῖν [289 verses](pron 2nd pl dat) "To you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." 

 [821 verses](article sg fem nom)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

λύπη [4 verses](noun sg fem nom) is from lype, which means "pain of the body", "sad plight", "sad condition", "pain of the mind," and "grief."

πεπλήρωκεν [21 verses](verb 3rd sg perf ind act) "Has fulfilled" is pleroo, which mean "to fill," "to fulfill," "to make complete," "to pay in full," "to make pregnant," and "to fill full."

ὑμῶν [168 verses](pron 2nd pl gen) "Your/you" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." It is either a possessive pronoun or the object of a preposition.

τὴν [821 verses](article sg fem acc)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").  -

καρδίαν[37 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Of heart" is kardia, which means "heart (the physical organ)," "the seat of emotions (especially passion, rage, and anger)," "inclination," "desire," "purpose," "mind," "the pith (in wood), and "the deep (of the sea)."

KJV Analysis: 

But -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "instead" or "rather." It is not the common word usually translated as "but." It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise." Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, "not this," with a positive one, "instead this."

because  -- The word translated as "because" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

said -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "speak" is not the ordinary "to say," "to talk," "to tell," or "to speak" in Greek. This word means "idle chatter," "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "passing on." "conveying,"  or "relaying" information.  When there isn't an object, "transmit" captures the idea of being a conduit rather than a source of information.

these -- The "these" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. It follows the noun so it repeats the idea of the noun as "this one." It is often used in the neuter plural to refer to "these things." As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

things -- This "things"  is from the plural, neuter form of the previous adjective.

unto  -- This word "to" comes from the dative case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object.

you, -- The Greek pronoun "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc. As the object of a preposition, this form implies no movement, but in a fixed position or events occur at a specified time or while action was being performed.

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

sorrow -- (CW) The word translated as "sorrow" is better translated as "pain." In John 16:21, it is associated with childbirth, which is a pain, not sorrow.

has -- This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

filled -- "Filled" is a verb that means "to fill," "to fulfill," and "to fill full."

your -- The word translated as "your" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun precedes the noun, which is unusual.

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

heart. -- "Heart" is the Greek word that means "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. Jesus and the Septuagint use a singular "heart" when referring to a group of people.

KJV Translation Issues: 

5
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" is not the common word usually translated as "but."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "speak" does not capture the word's specific meaning.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "sorrow" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "sorrow" does not capture the word's specific meaning.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "heart" is not shown in the English translation.

NIV : 

John 16:6 Rather, you are filled with grief because I have said these things.

NIV Analysis: 

Rather -- The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "instead" or "rather." It is not the common word usually translated as "but." It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise." Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, "not this," with a positive one, "instead this."

you -- (WF) The word translated as "you" is a plural, second-person pronoun in the genitive case. This pronoun proceeds the noun, heart, acting as a possessive.

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

missing "heart"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "heart" both the physical organ and as the seat of emotions, which we discuss in a larger Greek context in this article here. Jesus and the Septuagint use a singular "heart" when referring to a group of people.

are -- (WT, WV) This helping verb "are" should be a "has" because the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This verb makes the verb passive, but it is active.

filled  -- "Filled" is a verb that means "to fill," "to fulfill," and "to fill full."

with -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "it" in the Greek source.

missing "the/this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article," the," which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," and "those"). See this article for more. 

grief -- (CW, WF) The word translated as "grief" is better translated as "pain." In John 16:21, it is associated with childbirth, which is a pain, not sorrow. This is the subject of the verb.

because  -- The word translated as "because" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

have -- This helping verb "have" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past.

said -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "speak" is not the ordinary "to say," "to talk," "to tell," or "to speak" in Greek. This word means "idle chatter," "gossip," and "the proclamations of an oracle." Jesus uses it to capture the idea of "passing on." "conveying,"  or "relaying" information.  When there isn't an object, "transmit" captures the idea of being a conduit rather than a source of information.

these -- The "these" is a pronoun that can mean "this" or "that," the nearer or the further depending on usage. It follows the noun so it repeats the idea of the noun as "this one." It is often used in the neuter plural to refer to "these things." As an adverb it can mean "therefore" and "that is why."

things -- This "things"  is from the plural, neuter form of the previous adjective.

missing "to you"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you," "for you," etc. As the object of a preposition, this form implies no movement, but in a fixed position or events occur at a specified time or while action was being performed.

NIV Translation Issues: 

11
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "speak" does not capture the word's specific meaning.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "you" is not the possessive not the subject of the verb.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "heart" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "heart" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb  "are" is the present tense, but the verb is the past perfect, "have filled."
  • WV - Wrong Voice - The verb "filled" here is translated as passive but it is active.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "with" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the/this" before "grief" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "grief" is not the object of a preposition but the subject of the verb.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "grief" does not capture the word's specific meaning.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "to you" is not shown in the English translation.

Related Verses: 

Possible Symbolic Meaning: 

Since the word "heart" is a metaphor for deep, the words here have the sense of expressing "full of deep pain" as well as a heart full of sorrow.

Unimportant Opinions and Imaginings: 

In chapter 14, Jesus twice told his follows that their hearts should not be troubled. "Troubled" was a Greek word, tarasso, which means "disturbed" and "agitated."

Front Page Date: 

Nov 20 2022