John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also,

Spoken to: 

challengers

Jesus is accused of breaking the Sabbath making himself a god by calling God his Father. While presented as a monologue many of these verses seem to be responses to questions that were not recorded. See the Unrecorded Question Theory.

KJV: 

John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.

NIV : 

John 5:27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.

LISTENERS HEARD: 

And he gave him authority, to perform judgment because he is a son of a man. 

MY TAKE: 

Jesus can judge people because he knows what it is like to be human.

GREEK (Each Word Explained Bottom of Page): 

LOST IN TRANSLATION: 

The English translation here (and most, but not all other English translations) want this "son of man" to look like Jesus's standard reference to himself. It isn't. Jesus intentionally changes it to say something important that most translations intentionally hide. Normally, he refers to himself as "the son of the man," with articles before both words. For an analysis of this phrase see this article. Here, however, the reference is "a son of a man." In other words, he is calling himself human, like other humans.

In the Greek, the word translated as "authority" has the sense of giving someone the power to make decisions, that is, the power of choice. This meaning works especially well with  the word translated as "judgment" and "judge" because that word also means "choice."  It's primary meaning is "to separate." It is interesting that the word for judgment, a noun, not a verb,  is not preceded with an article as it was, for example, in John 5:22. Not "the judgment" or "the choice," indicating a one-time event, but simple "judgment" or "choice."

# KJV TRANSLATION ISSUES: 

3
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "also" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today.
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be something more like "a."
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The verb "have" indicates the past perfect tense, but the tense is something that happens at a specific point in time (past, present, or future).
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "make" is not shown in the English translation.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "judge" is not a verb but the noun "a judgment."
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "the" should be something more like "a."

EACH WORD of KJV : 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

hath -- (WT) This helping verb "hath" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

given -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

him  -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

authority  - The term translated as "authority" isn't the "power" of skill or energy but of authority, control, and the ability to choose.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

execute -- The Greek word translated as "to execute" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is usually translated as "do" but it is not as broad a word as the English "do," which covers all actions, productive or not. 

judgment -- The Greek word translated as "judgment" means distinguishing among choices and "separating" things. Christ uses it in a variety of ways, though the KJV usually translates it as "judgment." It also means a "turning point," since it is the source of the meaning of "crisis" has in English. Only secondarily does it means "judgment" as in a court judgment.

also, -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "also" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

because -- The word translated as "because" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

the -- (WW) There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation. This should be "a."

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." This is not the phrase "the son of  the man" that is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

man. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

EACH WORD of NIV : 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

has -- (WT) This helping verb "has" indicates that the verb is the tense indicating an action completed in the past. This is not the tense of the verb here.

given -- The verb translated as "given" means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe." It is almost always translated as some form of "give."

him  -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

authority  - The term translated as "authority" isn't the "power" of skill or energy but of authority, control, and the ability to choose.

to -- This "to" is added because the infinitive form of the verb requires a "to" in English.

missing "make"  -- (MW) The untranslated word "make" has the primary meaning of "making" or producing" something or "causing" or "performing" as service. It describes a productive action.  It is usually translated as "do" but it is not as broad a word as the English "do," which covers all actions, productive or not. 

judge -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "judge" is the noun that means distinguishing among choices and "separating" things. Jesus uses it in a variety of ways, though the KJV usually translates it as "judgment." It also means a "turning point," since it is the source of the meaning of "crisis" has in English. Only secondarily does it means "judgment" as in a court judgment.

because -- The word translated as "because" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

he -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

the -- (WW) There is no indefinite article in Greek, but when a word doesn't have a definite article, the indefinite article can be added in English translation. This should be "a."

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." This is not the phrase "the son of  the man" that is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

Man. -- The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

COMPARISON: GREEK to KJV : 

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἐξουσίαν [23 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Authority" is exousia which means "control," "the power of choice," "permission," "the power of authority," "the right of privilege," "abundance of means," and "abuse of power." --

ἔδωκεν [147 verses](3rd sg aor ind act) "Hath given" is didomi, which means "to give," "to grant," "to hand over," "appoint," "establish," and "to describe."

αὐτῷ  [720 verses](adj sg masc dat) "Him" (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

κρίσιν  [26 verses](noun sg fem acc) "Judgment" is krisis, which means "separating," "distinguishing," "judgment," "choice," "election," "trial," "dispute," "event," and "issue."

ποιεῖν [168 verses] (pres inf act) "Execute" is poieo, which means "to make," "to produce," "to create," "to bring into existence," "to bring about," "to cause," "to perform," "to render," "to consider," "to prepare," "to make ready," and "to do."

ὅτι [332 verses](adv/conj) "That" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that," "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

υἱὸς [158 verses](noun sg masc nom​) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

ἀνθρώπου [209 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is from anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate.

ἐστίν.[614 verses](3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

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Front Page Date: 

Feb 23 2022