John 5:42 But I know you,

Spoken to: 

challengers

Context: 

Jesus is accused of breaking the Sabbath and making himself a god by calling God his Father. The current topic is who accepts him.

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Instead, I have learned to know you because you do not keep the love of the Divine within yourselves.

KJV : 

John 5:42 But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you.

NIV : 

John 5:42 but I know you. I know that you do not have the love of God in your hearts.

What is Lost in Translation: 

The verb, "know", in Greek is not the present tense as shown in translation. It is the perfect tense, which refers to an action completed in the past. The sense is "have learned to know." At this point, Jesus has learned to understand his critics.

The word translated as "that" is usually used by Jesus to say "because," that is, to explain a cause.The sense is that Jesus had to learn about them because they didn't love the Divine. This word has three possible meaning in John 5:40, but only one of those meanings works here.

The last word translated as "you" and "your" emphasizes the self. It is not a second-person pronoun, but a reflexive form, emphasizing the self.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ἀλλὰ [154 verses](conj) "But" is alla, which means "otherwise," "but," "still," "at least," "except," "yet," nevertheless," "rather," "moreover," and "nay."

ἔγνωκα [62 verses](1st sg perf ind act) "I know," is ginosko which means "to learn to know," "to know by reflection or observation," and "to perceive."

ὑμᾶς [210 verses](pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is humas which is the plural objective form of the second-person pronoun, "you."

ὅτι [332 verses](adv/conj) "That" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that," "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

τὴν [821 verses](article sg fem acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἀγάπην [12 verses] (noun sg fem acc) "The love" is agape, which means "the love of a husband and wife," "love of God by man," "brotherly love," "charity," and "alms." Jesus uses it to describe the people and things that we care about or should care about.

τοῦ [821 verses](article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

θεοῦ [144 verses](noun sg masc gen) "God" is theos, which means "God," "divine," and "Deity."

οὐκ [269 verses](partic) "Not" is ou , the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences.  The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

ἔχετε [181 verses](2nd pl pres ind act) "Have" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to hold fast," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, "acquire," "get,"

ἐν [413 verses](prep) "In" is en, which means, with a dative object, "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," "during,"  and "with." With the accusative, it means "into," "on," and "for." Referring to time, it means. "in the course of" or "during." 

ἑαυτοῖς  [75 verses](adj pl masc dat) "Himself" is heautou, is a reflexive pronoun that means "himself," "herself," "itself" "themselves," and "ourselves." It is not the common pronoun meaning simply "he," "she," "them," etc.

KJV Analysis: 

But  -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "instead" or "rather." It is not the common word usually translated as "but." It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise." Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, not doing something, with a positive one, "instead do this."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

know -- (WT) "Know" is a verb that means "to learn to know," "to recognize," "make known," "to know carnally," and "to learn. This is not the present tense, but the past perfect, "have learned to know."

you -- The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.

, that-- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

ye -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

love -- The word translated as "love" expresses a lot of different ideas including "caring of spouses" "caring of God" and "charity" in the sense of giving to the poor. In the KJV of the Gospels, it is always translated as "love" or "beloved." Of the two different words that Jesus uses that are translated as "love,"  this word implies a sense of responsibility not a similarity of tastes. In Greek, it is associated with the affection of hugging and embracing someone. See this article on love for more information.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

God  -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God," "the Divine" or "the divine one." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

in -- The word translated as "in" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time),  or "among"  with a dative object as the one here. 

you. -- (CW) "You" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself," "herself," and so on. " It can be used with the first and second person. The sense is a focus on "self."

KJV Translation Issues: 

4
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • WT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "know" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have known."
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "God" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "you" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.

NIV Analysis: 

but  -- (CW) The Greek word translated as "but" denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "instead" or "rather." It is not the common word usually translated as "but." It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise." Jesus often uses this conjunction to connect a negative clause, not doing something, with a positive one, "instead do this."

I -- This is from the first-person, singular form of the verb.

know- (WT) "Know" is a verb that means "to know," "to recognize," "make known," "to know carnally," and "to learn. This is not the present tense, but the past perfect, "have known."

you -- The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.

I know -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as a repeat of "I know" in the Greek source.

that-- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause, "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore."

you -- This is from the second-person, plural form of the verb.

do -- This helping verb is used to create questions, commands, negative statements, and smooth word flow in English, but the Greek could be either a question or a statement.

not -- The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It means "no," "not," or"no truly." It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea. When a negative precedes the verb, it affects the whole clause. When it precedes other words, its force is limited to those words.

have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses.

the   -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

love -- The word translated as "love" expresses a lot of different ideas including "caring of spouses" "caring of God" and "charity" in the sense of giving to the poor. In the KJV of the Gospels, it is always translated as "love" or "beloved." Of the two different words that Jesus uses that are translated as "love,"  this word implies a sense of responsibility not a similarity of tastes. In Greek, it is associated with the affection of hugging and embracing someone. See this article on love for more information.

of -- This word "of"  comes from the genitive case of the following word that requires the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

God  -- The word translated as "God" means "God" and "deity." It is introduced with an article, so "the God," "the Divine" or "the divine one." Jesus often uses it this way perhaps to indicate the one God as opposed to the pagan gods.

in -- The word translated as "in" means "in," "within," "with" (an instrument), "during" (time),  or "among"  with a dative object as the one here. 

your. -- (CW) "You" is a special reflexive pronoun that means "himself," "herself," and so on. " It can be used with the first and second person. The sense is a focus on "self."

hearts. -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "hearts" in the Greek source.

NIV Translation Issues: 

6
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "but" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The repeat of "I know" doesn't exist in the source.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "God" is not shown in the English translation.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "your" does not capture the specific meaning of the word.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "heartsWT - Wrong Tense - The English verb "know" is the present tense, but Greek is in the past perfect, a completed action, "have known."
  • " doesn't exist in the source.

Front Page Date: 

Mar 10 2022