John 6:40 And this is the will of him that sent me,

Spoken to: 

audience

Context: 

A crowd comes to Jesus in Capernaum after eating of the loaves. The discussion is now about the will of the Father and the last day.

KJV : 

John 6:40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.

Literal Verse: 

Since this is the pleasure of my Father: all the ones watching the Son and trusting in him should have a life ongoing and I should raise him up, I myself, on that last day.

What is Lost in Translation: 

Notice that Jesus is talking about individual people here. This is different than the last verse, which referenced individual "things," a fact you cannot see in translation.

The translators have also attempted to make this verse say that something "will" happen in the future, but Jesus is only saying that it "should" happen in the future. The KJV is more honest, translating the verse as "may have eternal life," but this isn't the "may" of permission, but the "might" or "should" of a possibility. The NIV translations as "will have" is completely misleading. The same is true of Jesus's statement of "will raise." While this word could be the future tense, for this type of verb, the future is the same as the form of possibility. Having used one verb of possibility already, the audience would have been more likely to hear this one as a possibility as well, "might raise." This is not a promise, but something that should happen. That the Father wants to see happen.

The word translated as "seeth" and "look" means something special. It is not the common word for "see." It is the source of our word "theater." It means watching something intently, "gazing" or "viewing" might work better.

My Takeaway: 

Trusting in Jesus is a necessary first step.

Greek : 

Greek Vocabulary: 

τοῦτο [93 verses](adj sg neut acc) "That" is touto, which means "from here," "from there," "this [thing] there," or "that [person] here."

γὰρ [205 verses](partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for," "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what."

ἐστίν.[614 verses](3rd sg pres ind act) "Is" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible." With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to." It can also mean "must" with a dative.

τὸ [821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

θέλημα [16 verses](noun sg neut acc) "Will" is the noun, thelema, which means "will" and "pleasure."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen)  Untranslated is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

πατρός [191 verses](noun sg masc gen) "Father's" (NIV) is pater, which means "father," "grandfather," "author," "parent," and "forefathers."

μου [239 verses](adj sg masc gen) "My" (NIV) is from mou (emou), which means "me," and "mine." As a genitive object means movement away from something or a position away from something else

ἵνα [134 verses](adv/conj) "That" is hina, which means "in that place," "there," "where," "when,"  but when beginning a phrase "that," "in order that," "when," and "because."

πᾶς [212 verses](adj sg masc nom) "Every" is pas, which means "all," "the whole," "every," "anyone," "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way," "on every side," "in every way," and "altogether."

[821 verses](article sg masc nom)  "One" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the")

θεωρῶν [15 verses](part sg pres act masc nom) "Seeth" is theoreo, which means "to see", "to look at", "to gaze," "to behold," (of the mind) "to contemplate", "to consider", "to observe (as a spectator)", "to gaze", "to gape", "to inspect (troops)" and, in abstract, "to theorize" and "to speculate." It originally means literally, "to be sent to see an oracle."

τὸν [821 verses](article sg masc acc)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"). 

υἱὸν [158 verses](noun sg masc acc) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant.

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

πιστεύων [69 verses] (part sg pres act masc nom) "Believeth" is pisteuo, which means "to trust, put faith in, or rely on a person," "to believe in someone's words," "to comply," "to feel confident in a thing," and "to entrust in a thing."

εἰς [325 verses](prep) "Into" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

αὐτὸν [720 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

ἔχῃ [181 verses](3rd sg pres subj act) "May have" is echo, which means "to have," "to hold," "to possess," "to keep," "to have charge of," "to have due to one," "to maintain," "to hold fast," "to bear," "to carry," "to keep close," "to keep safe," and "to have means to do." In aorist, "acquire," "get,"

ζωήν,[42 verses] (noun sg fem acc) "Life" is zoe, which means "living," "substance," "property," "existence," and, incidentally, "the scum on milk." It has the sense of how we say "make a living" to mean property. Homer used it more to mean the opposite of death.

αἰώνιον. [23 verses](adj sg neut acc) "Everlasting" is aionios, which means "lasting for an age," "perpetual," and "eternal." From "aion" which is used in the bible to mean an "age."

καὶ [1089 verses](conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "also." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even," "also," and "just."

ἀναστήσω [29 verses] (verb 1st sg aor subj act or 1st sg fut ind act) "Will raise...up" is from anistemi, which means "to make stand up," "to raise up," "to raise from sleep," "to wake up," "to raise from the dead," "to rouse to action," "to put up for sale," "to make people rise," "to emigrate," "to transplant," and "to rise and leave the sanctuary."

αὐτὸν [720 verses](adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

ἐγὼ [162 verses](pron 1st sg masc nom) "I" is ego, which is the first-person singular pronoun meaning "I." It also means "I at least," "for my part," "indeed," and for myself.

τῇ [821 verses](article sg fem dat)  "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the").

ἐσχάτῃ [21 verses](adj sg fem dat) "Last"  is eschatos. In space, this means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending."

ἡμέρᾳ [96 verses](noun fem sg dat) "Days" is hemera, which, as a no -  -  - un, means "day" "a state or time of life," "a time (poetic)," "day break" and "day time." It is also and also has a second meaning, of "quiet," "tame (animals)," "cultivated (crops)," and "civilized (people)."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- (WW) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "and" in the source we use today and it did not exist in the source that the KJV translators used. The word in their source means "but."

this-- The word translated as "this" means "from here" "from there" or "this/that thing/person here/there." It usually comes after the noun, emphasizing it.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to."-- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

will -- The word translated as "will" means what someone's "pleasure," that is wants or desires, as well as the "will" of character. It mostly means what one wishes or has determined shall be done. It also means a desire or a choice. When applied to people, "desires" works, but when applied to God, the concept "intent" seems closer to the concept.

of him that sent me, -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "of him that sent me," in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

that -- The word translated as "that" is an adverb "in that place," "there," "where," "when," or as a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause  "that," "in order that" or "because."

every -- The word translated as "every" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

one .  -- The word translated as "one" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

which -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "which" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle.

seeth -- (CW, WF) The Greek verb translated as "seeth" is not as simple as "see." It is not one of the common words Christ uses for seeing and being seen. It is a more specific word that has more of a sense of "gazing" at or "viewing" something as a spectator. It originally meant watching an oracle. It also means "seeing something in your mind." It is in the form of a participle, "viewing."

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

believeth -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "believe" does not apply to religious belief as much as it does trusting in other people, especially their word. Christ usually uses it in contexts, as the one here, that apply to trusting words. The negation of "belief" with the objective, instead of subjective, negative, equates trust with a fact. It is in the form of a participle, "believing."

on -- (CW) The word translated as "on" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure. This word is usually translated as "in."

him, -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

may -- This helping verb "may" indicates that the verb indicates a possibility, the subjunctive. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English.

have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as it is in English. 

everlasting -- "Everlasting" is an adjective based on the word that means "age" or "eon." It has the sense of "perpetual" or "ageless."

life: -- The word translated as "life" means "living" but it also means "substance," "existence," and "property."Jesus uses it to mean the "existence" of physical life, spirit plus body. To learn more read this article on life eternal, For more on how Christ uses this word with other words about human existence (soul, heart, spirit, body, etc.), read this article.

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

I -- The pronoun "I" is used here. Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I." Saying "I myself" captures this feeling in English.

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

will -- (CW) This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense but its form could also indicate a possibility at some time, that it "might" or "should" happen. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. Jesus's listeners would probably here a possibility here because that was the form of the previous verb.

raise -- "Raise " is a Greek verb that means "to make to stand up," "to raise from the dead," "to rouse to action," and "to make people rise up."

him -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

up -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "up."

at -- This word "at" comes from the dative case of the following words that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

last -- "Last" is from an adjective that, in space, means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." If the context is the previous verse, it can refer to distance or people so it means "furthest" or "meanest." However, clearly, its use is intended for a double meaning, meaning both. KJV English has a double meaning as well, but it is not quite the same.

day. -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

KJV Translation Issues: 

9
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "and" should be something more like "but."
  • OS -- Outdated Source -- The Greek word translated as "of him that sent me" existed in the KJV Greek source but not the source we use today.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "which" doesn't exist in the source.
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "see" is not the common word usually translated as "see."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "see" is not an active verb but a participle, "viewing."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "believe" is not an active verb but a participle, "believing."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "on" is not the common word usually translated as "on."
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "will" might not mean the future tense.

NIV : 

 John 6:40 For my Father’s will is that everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day.”

NIV Analysis: 

For --The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why." However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "consequently" or "as a cause." 

missing "this"  -- (MW) The untranslated word"this" means "from here" "from there" or "this/that thing/person here/there." It usually comes after the noun, emphasizing it.

my .-- "My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. This pronoun follows the noun so "of mine." 

Father's -- (OS) There is nothing in the Greek that can be translated as "father" in the source we use today but it does exist in the source that the KJV translators used.

missing "the"  -- (MW) The untranslated word is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more.

will -- The word translated as "will" means what someone's "pleasure," that is wants or desires, as well as the "will" of character. It mostly means what one wishes or has determined shall be done. It also means a desire or a choice. When applied to people, "desires" works, but when applied to God, the concept "intent" seems closer to the concept.

is -- The verb "is" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. With the genitive object, the sense is "belongs to."-- When the verb "to be" appears early in the clause before the subject, the sense is more like "it is" or, in the plural, "there are."

that -- The word translated as "that" is an adverb "in that place," "there," "where," "when," or as a conjunction that starts a subordinate clause  "that," "in order that" or "because."

every- -- The word translated as "every" is the Greek adjective meaning "all," "the whole," "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way," "on every side," and "altogether."

-one .  -- The word translated as "one" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more.

who -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "who" in the Greek source. It was added because the next verb was translated as active rather than as a participle.

looks -- (WF) The Greek verb translated as "looks"  is not one of the common words Christ uses for seeing and being seen. It is a more specific word that has more of a sense of "gazing" at or "viewing" something as a spectator. It originally meant watching an oracle. It also means "seeing something in your mind." It is in the form of a participle, "viewing." The problem with "look" is that it doesn't take an object and this verb does.

to  -- (IW) There is nothing that can be translated as "toit" in the Greek source. It was added because of the translator's choice of verb which requires a preposition before the object.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. 

Son -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense may be "the child of the man."

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

believes -- (WF) The Greek word translated as "believe" does not apply to religious belief as much as it does trusting in other people, especially their word. Christ usually uses it in contexts, as the one here, that apply to trusting words. The negation of "belief" with the objective, instead of subjective, negative, equates trust with a fact. It is in the form of a participle, "believing."

in -- The word translated as "in" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure. This word is usually translated as "in."

him, -- The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

shall -- (CW) This helping verb "shall" does not indicate the future tense, but that the verb describes a possibility, the subjunctive voice. A "might" or "should" in English is more appropriate, but is assumed in an "if" or "when" clause. Helping verbs are not needed in Greek since the main verb carries this information in its form.

have -- The word translated as "have" means to "have," "possess," "bear," "keep close," "have means to do,"  "to have due to one," or "keep" and many specific uses. This verb isn't used to form past tenses as it is in English. 

everlasting -- "Everlasting" is an adjective based on the word that means "age" or "eon." It has the sense of "perpetual" or "ageless."

life: -- The word translated as "life" means "living" but it also means "substance," "existence," and "property."Jesus uses it to mean the "existence" of physical life, spirit plus body. To learn more read this article on life eternal, For more on how Christ uses this word with other words about human existence (soul, heart, spirit, body, etc.), read this article.

and  -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and," but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). In a series, it is can be translated as "not only...but also." After words implying sameness "as."

I -- The pronoun "I" is used here. Since, as the subject of the sentence, it is part of the verb, its explicit use accentuates who is speaking "I." Saying "I myself" captures this feeling in English.

missing "myself" -- (MW)  The subjective pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."

will -- (CW) This helping verb "will" indicates that the verb is the future tense but its form could also indicate a possibility at some time, that it "might" or "should" happen. Helping or auxiliary verbs are needed to translate the Greek verb forms into English. Jesus's listeners would probably here a possibility here because that was the form of the previous verb.

raise -- "Raise " is a Greek verb that means "to make to stand up," "to raise from the dead," "to rouse to action," and "to make people rise up."

them -- (WN) The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." This pronoun follows the noun so "of his."

up -- This is from the prefix of the previous verb that means "up."

at -- This word "at" comes from the dative case of the following words that requires the addition of a preposition in English. The most common is a "to" for the English indirect object. However, the translator can choose other prepositions: "with,"  "in,"   "of,"  "as," "by," "for," "at," or "on" depending on the context.

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article, without a noun, it has the sense of "the one." The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those") than the English "the." See this article for more. 

last -- "Last" is from an adjective that, in space, means "furthest." In degree, it means "uttermost" and "highest." In persons, it means "lowest" and "meanest." Of time, it means "last" and "ending." If the context is the previous verse, it can refer to distance or people so it means "furthest" or "meanest." However, clearly, its use is intended for a double meaning, meaning both. KJV English has a double meaning as well, but it is not quite the same.

day. -- The Greek word translated as "day" also means "time," in general, and refers specifically to the "daytime."

NIV Translation Issues: 

9
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "this" is not shown in the English translation.
  • MW - Missing Word -- The word "the" before "father" is not shown in the English translation.
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "who" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "look" is not an active verb but a participle, "viewing."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "to" doesn't exist in the source.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "believe" is not an active verb but a participle, "believing."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "shall" does not mean the future tense. It should be a "might."
  • MW -- Missing Word  -- The pronoun repeats the information in the verb so it should be repeated in English like "I myself."
  • CW - Confusing Word -- The "will" might not mean the future tense.

Related Verses: 

Front Page Date: 

Mar 30 2022