Luke 13:25 When once the master of the house is risen up,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

From who? possibly he might be awakened, the house master, and he might exclude, shut the door and you might start for yourself, out of place,  to have been standing still and to knock the door saying, "Master, Master, open to us!" And answering, he is going to say to you, "I don't see you. Where are you from?" 

KJV : 

Luke 13:25 When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are:

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

The beginning of this verse is very different in Greek. The latter parts of this verse seem to echo the story of the ten virgins (Matthew 25:10 Matthew 25:11Matthew 25:12) and the point it largely the same. However, the reference to the master of the house awakening himself and going to shut the door is tantalizing, in may ways contradicting standard Christian teaching. As usual, there is more humor here than in the English, especially at the end where an important question is lost in translation. 

There is no Greek word for "when" or "once" in this verse. It starts with a statement "From who? Possibly". The Greek word for "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source. The word "who" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("the one that") introducing a dependent clause. The "possible" is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "possibly," "would have", "might", "should," and "could". This indicates that the story is something that might happen. All the verbs forms match this idea of possibility. 

"The master of the house" is from a compound Greek word that is literally the "master of the house." It was translated as "householder." The "master" part of this word is not the same word as the "lord" or "master" word used toward the end. 

The word for "is risen up" means "awaken" and is the same word Jesus uses to describe God raising the dead and false prophets arising. However, here it is passive, something done to someone, "might be awakened". This passive form is what Jesus uses to refer to his own resurrection: not something that he does for himself, but something that is done to him. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also")." 

"Hath shut" is from a Greek verb Jesus uses uniquely here. It means to "shut off from", "shut out", "exclude from", "refuse", "close", and to "shut out".  This is a special term, different than the simple "shut" root of this word used in the ten virgin story. However, since it refers to the "door", we lose these other ideas and have to say "shut the door". 

The word translated as "the door" means "door", and "gate", and, metaphorically, "entrance to the soul."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

 "Ye begin" is from a verb in the form of an adjective that means "to be first", "to begin," and "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."  The two meanings, "to start" and "to command" create different meanings when paired with the following verbs.  The form is someone acting on themselves, so "make a start for yourself" or "command yourself". 

The word translated as "without" means "out of a place" and "outside." Both meanings work here. 

The verb translated as "to stand" means "to make stand", "to set up", "to establish" and "to stand still". It is in the form of an activity completed in the past, "to have been standing still". 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

The word translated as "to knock" also means "to examine" and "to prove." It is in the present tense, contrasted with the "completed" tense of the previous verse. Jesus uses this word in his Sermon on the Mount, Matthew 7:7, where he says that he who knocks has it opened. 

 The word translated as "at the door" means "door", and "gate", and, metaphorically, "entrance to the soul." 

The word translated as "saying" is the most common word that means "to say," and "to speak." 

"Open" is also an uncommon word that means "to open", "to throw open," and "to disclose." Christ also uses this word in his standard sermon, Matthew 7:7. The ten virgins did not knock. 

"To us" is the first person plural pronoun. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

"He shall answer" is a verb that means to "set apart," "choose", "answer" a question, "answer charges," and "defend oneself." In the NT, in this form, it means "answering", but the adjective "answering" is preceded by a "the", the sense is "the one answering" or "the answerer."

There is no "and" here.

"Say" is from means "to say" and "to speak" also. However, it has less a sense of teaching and more a sense of addressing and proclaiming. It is the future tense, "going to say" or "will say". 

The Greek pronoun "to you" here is plural and in the form of an indirect object, "to you", "for you", etc. 

The word translated as "I know" means primarily "to see" and is used to mean "know' as we use the word "see" to mean "know" in English.

The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.  

The Greek word translated as "not" is the Greek negative used to deny objective facts, not opinions. It makes a negative statement of fact. Adding "really" to the sentence captures the same idea.

The last two words seem to clearly be a question, not part of the previous statement about not knowing them. 

 "Whence" is from an adverb which means  "from where" or "from what source."

The verb "ye are" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics. Coupled with the previous adverb, it creates the question, "where are you from?"

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

apokleiōἀφ᾽ (prep) "When once" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause. -- The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.

οὗ (pron sg masc gen) Untranslated is hos, which means "this", "that", "he", "she", "which", "what", "who", "whosoever", "where", "for which reason," and many similar meanings. --

ἂν (particle) Untranslated is an, which is a particle used with verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. There is no exact equivalent in English, but it is translated as "possibly," "would have", "might", "should," and "could." -- "

ἐγερθῇ (verb 3rd sg aor subj pass contr) "Is risen up" is egeiro, which means "to awaken", "to stir up," and "to rouse." --

οἰκοδεσπότης (noun sg masc gen) "The master of the house" is from oikodespotês , which is the "master of the house" and also means "steward of a house," and "native ruler." It is a combination of two words. The first part is from oikia, which means "building", "house", "family," and "household," and the second is despotes, which means "master" and "lord" but it isn't the word normally translated as "lord" in the Gospels. -- 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

ἀποκλείσῃ [unique](verb 3rd sg aor subj act) "Hath shut" is apokleio, which "shut off from", "shut out", "exclude from", "refuse", "close", and to "shut out". 

τὴν θύραν, (noun sg fem nom ) "The door" is from thyrawhich means "door", "valve", "gate", "window shutter", "a frame of planks," in war "fence or similar obstruction", "entrance" and, metaphorically, "entrance to the soul." 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἄρξησθε (verb 2nd pl fut ind mid or verb 2nd pl aor subj mid) "Ye begin" is from archomai, which is a form of archô, which means "to be first", "to begin", "to make a beginning", "to rule", "to govern," and "to command."

ἔξω (adv) "Without" is exo, which means "out of a place", "outside", "external things," and "beyond a time." 

ἑστάναι (verb perf inf act) "To stand" is histemi, which means "to make to stand", "to stand", "to set up", "to bring to a standstill", "to check", "to appoint", "to establish", "to fix by agreement", "to be placed", "to be set", "to stand still", "to stand firm", "to set upright", "to erected", "to arise," and "to place." 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

κρούειν (verb pres inf act) "To knock" is krouo, which means to "strike", "smite", "strike one against another", "strike together", "knocking", "examine", "try", "prove," and "knock at the door [on the outside]." --

τὴν θύραν (noun sg fem acc) "At the door" is from thyrawhich means "door", "valve", "gate", "window shutter", "a frame of planks," in war "fence or similar obstruction", "entrance" and, metaphorically, "entrance to the soul." --

λέγοντες (part pl pres act masc nom) "Saying" is from lego, which means "to recount", "to tell over", "to say", "to speak", "to teach", "to mean", "boast of", "tell of", "recite," nominate," and "command." It has a secondary meaning "pick out," "choose for oneself", "pick up", "gather", "count," and "recount." A less common word that is spelt the same means "to lay", "to lay asleep" and "to lull asleep."

Κύριε, κύριε, (noun sg masc voc) "Lord" is from kyrios (kurios), which means "having power", "being in authority" and "being in possession of." It also means "lord", "master of the house," and "head of the family." --

ἄνοιξον (verb 2nd sg aor imperat act) "Open" is from anoigo, which means "to open", "to throw open," and "to disclose."

ἡμῖν: (pron 1st pl masc dat) "Unto us" is from hemeis, the first person plural pronoun, "we", "us".

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἀποκριθεὶς (part sg aor pass masc nom) "He shall answer" is from apokrinomai that means to "set apart," "choose", "exclude," "reject on examination", "decide", "answer" the question, "answer charges," and "defend oneself" and, in the passive, "to be parted or separated." In the Gospels, it is always translated as "answered."

ἐρεῖ (verb 3rd sg fut ind act )  "And say" is from eipon, which means "to speak", "to say", "to recite", "to address", "to mention", "to name", "to proclaim", "to plead", "to promise," and "to offer." 

ὑμῖν (pron 2nd pl dat) "To you" is humin the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." 

Οὐκ "Not" is from ou which is the negative adverb for facts and statements, negating both single words and sentences. The other negative adverb, μή applies to will and thought; οὐ denies, μή rejects; οὐ is absolute, μή relative; οὐ objective, μή subjective.

οἶδα (verb 1st sg perf ind act) "I know" is from oida which is a form of eido which means "to see", "to examine", "to perceive", "to behold", "to know how to do", "to see with the mind's eye," and "to know."

ὑμᾶς  (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is from humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." -

πόθεν (adv) "Whence" is from pothen which means "whence" and "from what source." --

ἐστέ. (verb 2nd pl pres ind act ) "Ye are" is eimi, which means "to be", "to exist", "to be the case," and "is possible."

Front Page Date: 

May 31 2018