Luke 14:28 For which of you, intending to build a tower,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Because who from among you, intending a tower to construct doesn't really first sitting down, sitting down to judge the expenditure. If he has into completion. 

KJV : 

Luke 14:28 For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

There are many interesting things here including a whole series of words used only once by Jesus here. One unique word is a near synonym for the common word before it. Generally, when Jesus uses a word for which there are other common words he could use, there is a reason, usually humorous. Here, it is somewhat humorous.  The last phrase of this verse contains a very uncommon word, one that appears only in an ancient book on language outside of the NT. 

The word translated as "for" introduces a reason or explanation so "because" and, in questions, "why." However, since this word always appears in the second position, it is more like an aside remark like, "as an explanation" or "as a cause". 

The word translated as "which" means primarily "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who", "what", or even "why".

The Greek preposition translated as "of" means "out of" or "from." In Greek, they use the genitive case instead of a preposition for the types of phrases with usually use with "of."

The word translated as "you" is plural addressing a group of Jesus's listeners.

The Greek word translated as "intending" expresses consent and even a delight in doing something. It means "to consent" and "to be resolved to a purpose". It is usually translated as "will" but "want" is better.

"To build" is a word that specifically means "build a house," generally, "build", "fashion," "found upon," and, metaphorically, "build up," and "edify."

"A tower" is a Greek now that means "tower", "tower of defense", "movable tower (for storming towns," and "a dice cup."

"Sitteth" is from a verb that means "to place", "to take seats," and "to convene." This is a very common verb. It is either a second-person active verb or an adjective, "you sit down" or "sitting down". Neither works great, but because what follows in the third person, we will go with the adjective. 

The Greek verb translated as "counteth" is used uniquely here by Jesus and means to "make to sit down", "seat", "set", "place", "set up",  "take one's seat", "sit", "recline at meals", "sit as judge", and "reside".  The fact it repeats the meaning of the previous verb seems like a clarification.  Like the previous verb, it is either a second-person active verb or an adjective, "you sit down" or "sitting down".  

The Greek noun translated as "cost" is also used uniquely here. It means "cost", "expenditure", "money spent", and "extravagance".

The "if" here expresses a condition but it means nothing regarding whether that condition is met or not. It also means "if ever" and "whenever."

The word translated as "he have" means "to possess" or "to keep".  The form his is third-person present, "he has". 

There are no Greek words that mean "sufficient to finish it?" here. Not one of them. There is a "to", but it is the preposition where as "to finish" is a verb form. The actual words means something like "into completion" or "as much as expected."

The preposition means  "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

The final word is another unique word and it is difficult to translate because it only shows up three times in ancient Greek, once in a book on language by a Greek scholar, then by Jesus in the NT and then by those writing about the NT,  It means "completion", "precise", and "rounding off".

Greek Vocabulary: 

τίς (irreg sg masc nom) "What" is tis which can mean "someone", "any one", "everyone", "they [indefinite]", "many a one", "whoever", "anyone", "anything", "some sort", "some sort of", "each", "any", "the individual", "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who", "why," or "what."  

γὰρ (partic) "For" comes from gar which is the introduction of a clause explaining a reason or explanation: "for", "since," and "as." In an abrupt question, it means "why" and "what."

ἐξ (prep) "Of" is ek, which means 1) [of motion] "out of", "from", "by", "away from;" 2) [of place] "beyond", "outside of", "beyond;" 3) [of succession] "after", "from;" 4) [of rest] "on", "in," 5) [of time] "since", "from", "at", "in;" 5) [of materials] "out of", "made from."

ὑμῶν (pron 2nd pl gen) "You" is humon, the plural possessive form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you." 

θέλων (part sg pres act masc nom) "Intending" is thelo, which as a verb means "to be willing (of consent rather than desire)", "to wish", "to ordain", "to decree", "to be resolved to a purpose" "to maintain", "to hold", "to delight in, and "will (too express a future event with inanimate objects)." As a participle, it means "being willing" or, adverbially, "willingly," and "gladly".

πύργον (noun sg masc acc) "Tower" is from pyrgos, which means "tower", "tower of defense", "movable tower (for storming towns," and "a dice cup."

οἰκοδομῆσαι (verb aor inf act) "To build" is oikodomeo,which means to "build a house," generally, "build", "fashion," "found upon," and, metaphorically, "build up," and "edify." 

οὐχὶ (partic) "Not" is ouchi, an adverb which means "no", "no truly", "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," "notwithstanding", "yet", "still", "never yet", "for not", "indeed", "for surely not", "no,—certainly not", "for I don't suppose," and "for in no manner." -- The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly", "assuredly not", "not however", "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

πρῶτον (adj sg masc acc) "First" is protos. In place, this means "before", "in front," and, as a noun, "the foremost." Of time, it means "former", "earlier," and, as a noun, "the initial." In order, it means "the first." In math, it means the prime numbers. Of rank or degree, it means "superior" or, as a noun, "the highest" or "the best." -- The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

καθίσας (verb 2nd sg aor ind act or part sg aor act masc nom) "Sitteth" is kathizô, which means "to make sit down", "to seat", "to place", "to sit", "to post", "to take seats", "to convene", "to appoint", "to establish", "to put in a certain condition", "to reside", "to sink down", "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

ψηφίζει [unique](verb 2nd sg aor ind act or part sg aor act masc nom) "Counteth" is psēphizōwhich means to "make to sit down", "seat", "set", "place", "set up",  "take one's seat", "sit",  "sit", "recline at meals", "sit as judge", and "reside".

 τὴν δαπάνην, [unique](noun sg fem acc) "The cost" is dapanēwhich means "cost", "expenditure", "money spent", and "extravagance".

εἰ (conj) "If" is ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever", "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions. 

ἔχει (3rd sg pres ind acc) "He have" is echo, which means "to have", "to hold", "to possess", "to keep", "to have charge of", "to maintain", "to hold fast", "to bear", "to carry", "to keep close", "to keep safe," and "to have means to do."

εἰς (prep) "Sufficient to" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." 

ἀπαρτισμόν; [unique](noun sg masc acc) "Finish" is apartismos, which means "completion", "precise", and "rounding off".

Front Page Date: 

Jul 1 2018