Luke 14:31 Or what king, going to make war against another king,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Or what king marching to another king to join in a fight in a war doesn't indeed, sitting down, first  consider for himself if  possible it is surrounded by ten thousand to meet anyone with twenty thousand showing up against him. 

KJV : 

Luke 14:31 Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

There are unique words here and a number of uncommon ones. Most seem chosen for their specific meanings as opposed to humor. However, there is some humor too. The two "with" words here are two different prepositions. There is one word here, the word translated as "able" that is in the form of an object when it seems as those it should be in the form of a subject. It is interesting that the word "meet" here is used to mean "battle." Something we also see in ancient Chinese. 

"Or" is translated from a Greek word that means primarily "or" but serves as "than" in a comparison.

The word translated as "what" means primarily "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," or even "why."

"King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

The Greek verb translated as "going" means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Jesus usually uses it to mean "go away," but it also has the specific meaning of "marching." 

"To make" is a  verb that Jesus  only uses here that means "which means throw together," "dash together," "collect," "jumble up together," "to be profitable," but it also specific means "to join in a fight," which is why it is used here. However, "dash together" is clearly a humorous way to say join in a fight. 

"War" is a noun that Jesus only uses in one other verse (repeated in three Gospels) that means "war," "battle," or "fight." It is a metaphor for "womankind."

The word translated as "against" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, and "up to" limits in time and measure. It actually appears before "war" not "another king." The sense is "in a way." 

The word translated as "another" means "one of two," "other," or "different." It is an adjective. The form is an indirect object. 

"King" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief." The form is an indirect object. 

"Sit...down" is a Greek verb  "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint,"  and "to establish." The form is not active, but that of an adjective, "sitting down." 

The word translated as "not" is a different form of the usual Greek negative of fact meaning "no truly," "assuredly not," "not however," "nevertheless," and "notwithstanding."

The word translated as "first" takes a lot of different types of "first" meanings from its context. Here, it is technically an adjective but it plays the role of the English adverb "initially."

The "whether" here expresses a condition but it means nothing regarding whether that condition is met or not. It also means "if ever" and "whenever."

"Consulteth" is another verb that Jesus only uses here. It means to "take counsel, deliberate," "sit in council," "take counsel with oneself," "deliberate," "determine with oneself," and "resolve on."  It is the active verb, but the form is again amusing because the subject acts on himself, "determine for oneself" or "decide for himself." 

The verb "he be" here is the common form of "to be" in Greek. It means to have a certain characteristic or remain in a certain condition. It also equates terms or assigns characteristics.

"Able" is from an adjective which means "strong," "mighty," "possible," and "practicable." This is the adjective form of the noun usually translated as "power."  However, if the translation was "he is able" it would be in the form of the subject, which it isn't. So the sense is "it is possible." 

The first word translated as "with" also means "in," "on," "within," "with," or "among."

 "Ten" is the Greek word for the numeral "ten." 

"Thousand" is a numeral that means "a thousand" or "a large number."  It is used by Jesus uniquely in this verse. 

The verb translated as "to meet" is again a funny word, uncommon for Jesus to use. It means to "come or go to meet," "meet," "encounter" of a heavenly body, "meet," "agree to," "occur to one," and "fall in with." This seems to mean "meet" in the sense of battle rather than "agree with." 

There is an untranslated word here that means "anyone." It add humor as well since the sense is "anyone, a king or not." 

The second "with" is the Greek word that is almost always translated as "with" or a related concept such as "among" or "by the means of." However, it also means "with the support of" which gives it more power than the "with" used first. 

"Twenty" is the numeral "twenty" used only by Jesus here. 

The word translated as "come" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas. 

The word translated as "against" means "against," "before," "during," "by" or "on."

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." ​

Greek Vocabulary: 

(conj/adv) "Or" is e which is a particle meaning "either," "or," or "than." 

τίς (irreg sg masc nom) "What" is tis which can mean "someone," "any one," "everyone," "they [indefinite]," "many a one," "whoever," "anyone," "anything," "some sort," "some sort of," "each," "any," "the individual," "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who," "why," or "what." -- The Greek word translated as "some" in the singular means "anyone," "someone," and "anything." In the plural, it means "some," "they," and "those." When referring to a person it is a general reference as we would use the phrase "so and so." 

βασιλεὺς (noun sg masc nom) "King" is basileus, which means a "king," "chief," "prince," "lord," "master," "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom." 

πορευόμενος (part sg pres mp masc nom) "Going is poreuomai (poreuô) which means "make to go," "carry," "convey," "bring," "go," "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT. -- The Greek verb translated as "go" is the most common verb translated as "go" in the NT.This word means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Since it is in a form that acts on itself, the sense is "take yourselves."

ἑτέρῳ (adj sg masc dat) "Another" is heteros, which means "one or the other of two," "the second," "the secondary," "the minor," "other things [of like kind]," "another," "different," "other than," "different from," "other than should be," and "in another or a different way." As an adverb, it means "in one or the other way," "differently," "otherwise than should be," "badly," and "wrongly."

βασιλεῖ (noun sg masc dat) "King" is basileus, which means a "king," "chief," "prince," "lord," "master," "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom."

συνβαλεῖν [unique](verb aor/fut inf act ) "To make" is symballo," "which means throw together," "dash together," "collect," "jumble up together," "to be profitable," "come together," "join," "unite," "make a contract with a person," "contribute," "converse," "bring men together in hostile sense," "join in fight," "compare," "reckon," "compute," "conclude," "infer," "conjecture," "interpret," "agree,"  and "arrange."

εἰς (prep) "Against" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)," "until (of time)," "as much as (of measure or limit)," "as far as (of measure or limit)," "towards (to express relation)," "in regard to (to express relation)," "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)." --

πόλεμον [uncommon](noun sg masc acc) "War" is from polemos, (polemos), which means "war," "battle," or "fight." It is a metaphor for "womankind."

οὐχὶ (partic) "Not" is ouchi, an adverb which means "no," "no truly," "assuredly not," "not however," "nevertheless," "notwithstanding," "yet," "still," "never yet," "for not," "indeed," "for surely not," "no,—certainly not," "for I don't suppose," and "for in no manner." --

καθίσας (part sg aor act masc nom) "Sitteth...down" is kathizô, which means "to make sit down," "to seat," "to place," "to sit," "to post," "to take seats," "to convene," "to appoint," "to establish," "to put in a certain condition," "to reside," "to sink down," "to run aground [for ships]," "to recline at meals," and "to settle." From the Greek kata("down") hedraios ("to settle") .

πρῶτον (adj sg neut nom) "First" is protos. In place, this means "before," "in front," and, as a noun, "the foremost." Of time, it means "former," "earlier," and, as a noun, "the initial." In order, it means "the first." In math, it means the prime numbers. Of rank or degree, it means "superior" or, as a noun, "the highest" or "the best." 

βουλεύσεται [unique](verb 3rd sg fut/aor ind mid) "Consulteth" is bouleuōwhich means "take counsel, deliberate," "sit in council," "take counsel with oneself," "deliberate," "determine with oneself," and "resolve on."  

εἰ (conj) "Whether" is ei, which is the particle used to express conditions "if" (implying nothing about its fulfillment) or indirect questions, "whether." It also means "if ever," "in case," and "whenever." It is combined with various conjunctions to create derivative conditions. --

δυνατός (adj sg masc acc) "Be able" is from dynatos, which means "strong," "mighty," "possible," and "practicable." -

ἐστιν (verb 3rd sg pres ind act) "He be" is eimi, which means "to be," "to exist," "to be the case," of circumstance and events "to happen,"  and "is possible."  

ἐν (prep) "In" is en, which means "in," "on," "at," "by," "among," "within," "surrounded by," "in one's hands," "in one's power," and "with." --

δέκα (numeral) "Ten" is from deka, which means the number ten. --

χιλιάσιν [unique](noun pl fem dat) "Thousand" is chiliaswhich means "a thousand" or "a large number." 

ὑπαντῆσαι [uncommon](verb aor inf act) "To meet" is apantaowhich means to "come or go to meet," "meet," "encounter" of a heavenly body, "meet," "agree to," "occur to one," and "fall in with."

τῷ (pron sg dat) Untranslated is tis which can mean "someone," "any one," "everyone," "they [indefinite]," "many a one," "whoever," "anyone," "anything," "some sort," "some sort of," "each," "any," "the individual," "such," and so on. In a question, it can mean "who," "why," or "what." -- The Greek word translated as "some" in the singular means "anyone," "someone," and "anything." In the plural, it means "some," "they," and "those." When referring to a person it is a general reference as we would use the phrase "so and so."  -- The word translated as "what" means primarily "anything" or "anyone," but Jesus often uses it to start a question so it means "who," "what," or even "why." 

μετὰ (prep) "With" is meta, which means "with," "in the midst of," "among," "between," "in common," "along with," "by the aid of," "in one's dealings with," "into the middle of," "coming into," "in pursuit of," "after," "behind," "according to," and "next afterward." --

εἴκοσι [unique](numeral) "Twenty" is eikosi, which means "twenty."

χιλιάδων [unique](noun pl fem dat) "Thousand" is chiliaswhich means "a thousand" or "a large number." 

ἐρχομένῳ (part sg pres mp masc dat) "Him that comes" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out," "to come," "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. 

ἐπ᾽ (prep) "Against" is epi, which means "on," "upon," "at," "by," "before," "across," "during," and "against." --

αὐτόν;  (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him," "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

Front Page Date: 

Jul 4 2018