Luke 16:21 And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table:

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Also longing to be fattened from the droppings from the table of the rich one. Instead, even those dogs showing up licked up those sores of his. 

KJV : 

Luke 16:21   And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.

What is Lost in Translation: 

The first phrase should be read as part of the sentence in the previous verse, Luke 16:20. This is important because it is a clue to the "crime" for which the rich man is to be punished in the story. The beggar desired to be fed, but he was ritually unclean and technically should have removed himself from among people and not begged from them. However, those who were unclear were left food. Seeing him, the rich man could have done this, but under Jewish law it is not a crime to ignore others. The second part of this verse, starting with the "moreover" is clearly a new sentence.  Dogs are mentioned here because they were considered unclean animals under Jewish law.  This verse has two unique words and several uncommon ones. 

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). 

"Desiring  " is a Greek verb that means "to set one's heart upon", "to desire", "to covet," and "to long for."

"To be fed" is from a Greek verb that  means "feed", "feast", "fatten" and "to eat their fill." It is a term most commonly used for cattle.  It is a passive infinitive, so "to be fattened". 

The word translated as "with" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source.  

"The crumbs which fell" is translated from a Greek word that means "to fall" and "to fall down." It is the root word for dozens of Greek terms involving moving from a higher state to a lower one. The form here is an adjective, "fallen" in the form of a noun, "the fallen" or "those droppings". 

The word translated as "from" means "from" in both location and when referring to a source. This is the same word translated as "with" above. 

"The rich man's" is from an adjective that means "rich," and "opulent." It very much has the sense of ostentatiously rich. Here, it is used with an article, "the rich" but unlike English the sense is not a group of people, which would be plural, not singular, but "one who is wealthy." It is possessive, singular, "of the rich one". 

table: "Table" is an uncommon noun for Jesus to use. It means "table", "dining-table", "eating-table", "money changer's table", and "grinding stone". 

This is where a new sentence starts. 

"Moreover" is from two Greek words that mean "but also".   The Greek  "but" here denotes an exception or simple opposition. It is used to emphasize the contrast between things like we use "rather". It is the Greek word "other" like we use "otherwise" or here, "instead".   The Greek word "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also" or "even). Here the sense of this phrase seems to be "Inse

The Greek word translated as "the dogs", means a "dog". As in many languages, it was also an insult. Specifically, it implied shamelessness and in women and recklessness in men. Dogs were considered unclean animals under Jewish law. They are used here to emphasize Lazarus's unclean state. This is an uncommon word for Jesus to use. 

The word translated as "came" primarily means "to start out" but Christ usually uses it to mean "come" but not always. It indicates movement, especially its beginning, without indicating a direction toward or away from anything, so it works either as "come" or "go," but it is more like our phrase "being underway." Our English word "show up" captures both the "start" and "come" ideas.  Here, it is in the form of an adjective, "showing up". 

There is no "and" here. It is added because the verb above was translated as an active verb instead of an adjective. 

"Licked" is from a Greek verb that Jesus only uses here that means "lick up".

The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  

"Sores" is from a Greek noun that means "wound", "festering wound", "sore", and "ulcer".   It is only used by Jesus in this verse. 

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

ἐπιθυμῶν (part sg pres act masc nom) "Desiring" is epithymeo, which means "to set one's heart upon", "to desire", "to covet," and "to long for." -

χορτασθῆναι (verb aor inf pass) "To be fed" is chortazô (chortazo), which means "feed", "feast", "fatten" and "to eat their fill." It is a term most commonly used for cattle.

ἀπὸ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.  

τῶν πιπτόντων (part pl pres act masc gen) "The crumbs which fell" is the verb pipto, which means "to fall", "to fall down", "to be cast down," "fall upon", "intersect (geometry)", "meet", "pass through", "fall violently upon", "attack", "fall in battle", "sink{in water)", "fall short i.e. fail", " fall out of", "lose a thing", "escape from", "fall asleep", "to be accessible to perception", "to fall (between her feet, i.e. to be born)", "to let fall[dice)", "turn out," and "fall under (belong to a class)." --

ἀπὸ (prep) "From" is apo, a preposition of separation which means "from" or "away from" from when referring to place or motion, "from" or "after" when referring to time, "from" as an origin or cause.  

τῆς τραπέζης [uncommon](noun sg fem gen a) "Table" is trapeza which means "table", "dining-table", "eating-table", "money changer's table", and "grinding stone".  

τοῦ πλουσίου: (adj sg masc gen) "Rich man's" is from plousios, which means "rich," and "opulent." It very much has the sense of ostentatiously rich. -- 

ἀλλὰ (adv) "Moreover" is alla, (with kai below) which means "otherwise", "but", "still", "at least", "except", "yet," nevertheless", "rather", "moreover," and "nay." --

καὶ (conj/adv) "Moreover" is kai, (with alla above) which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." --

οἱ κύνες [uncommon](noun pl masc/fem nom) "Dogs" is from kyon, which means "dog", "bitch", "shepherds' dogs", "watch-dogs," a word of reproach to denote shamelessness or audacity (in women); recklessness (in men), and offensive people generally (compared to yapping dogs), a positive metaphor for people implying, watch-dog or guardian, servants, agents or watchers, and "the ace (the worst throw at dice)."

ἐρχόμενοι (part pl pres mp masc nom) "Came" is erchomai, which means "to start," "to set out", "to come", "to go," and any kind of motion. It means both "to go" on a journey and "to arrive" at a place. --

ἐπέλειχον [unique](verb 3rd pl imperf ind act) "Licked" is apoleichō which means "lick up".

τὰ ἕλκη [unique](noun pl neut acc) "Sores" is helkos, which means "wound", "festering wound", "sore", and "ulcer".  

αὐτοῦ. (adj sg masc gen) "His"  is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

Front Page Date: 

Aug 25 2018