Luke 21:12 But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you,

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Before, however, these things, all, they lay on you those hands of theirs and they might hound, betraying in meeting places and watch stations, being yourselves brought before rulers and governors on account of this name of mine.

KJV : 

Luke 21:12  But before all these, they shall lay their hands on you, and persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues, and into prisons, being brought before kings and rulers for my name's sake.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

It is surprising how many times similar verses appear in the Gospel (five times) and yet all of them are a little different. Luke is the only Gospel that offers a similar verse much earlier. All the rest offer these verses toward the end as we see here.

The Greek word translated as "but" means "but", "however", and "on the other hand". Since it always falls in the second position, translating it as "however" often captures its feeling better. 

The word translated as "before" means "towards", "by reason of (for)," and "against." It does have the specific meaning of "before" in time.

The word translated as "all" is the Greek adjective meaning "all", "the whole", "every," and similar ideas. When it is used as a noun, we would say "everything." As an adverb, it means "in every way", "on every side," and "altogether."

"These" is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar."

The word translated as "they shall lay" means literally to" throw against, before, by or on," but it has a large variety of specific uses. Its root means "toss" and is used by Jesus  frequently, usually humorously.  The word form could be future, but it could also be something that might possibly happen at some time, which is more common for Jesus.

The "on you" appears here, which makes it a funnier phrasing as well because the listener doesn't know what is being put on them.

The word translated as "their" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English. While it can preceded the word like our "my", Jesus prefers the phrasing "those hands of theirs" because it is funnier.

The Greek word translated as "hands" means "the hand and forearm". It can mean both the idea of a helping hand and being in someone's control. 

The word translated as "unto" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on."

The "you" here is the second-person, plural pronoun in the form of an object.  

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). 

The word translated as "persecute" means both "chase away" and "seek after." It is in the form of the future tense or one that indicates something that might happen. Again, Jesus usually uses the later.

There is no "you" here. But repeating pronouns is not as common in Greek as in English.

"Delivering up" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray", which works, but the sense is like we would talk about "turning someone in".

There is no "you" here.

The word translated as "to" means "into" a place, "towards" as a direction, "in regards to" a subject, and "up to" limits in time and measure.

The Greek word translated as "synagogues" is the source of our English word. It simply means an assembly or place of assembly. It comes from a Greek word Christ uses commonly, sunagô, to mean "gather" or "bring together."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). 

"Into" is not repeated here.

"Prisons" is a noun that means "a watching or guarding", "a guard", "a ward", "a watch", " "a station", "a post," "a keeping", "a preserving", "safekeeping", "a safe-guard," and "a precaution."  "Station" as we use "police station" works best.

"Being brought" is a Greek word which means "to lead", "to carry," or "to fetch" and has a lot of different specific meanings in different contexts. Not all of these are negative, for example, this phrase could mean "guided." It is in the middle passive form where someone is acted upon for or by themselves.

The word translated as "before" means "on", "over", "upon", "against", "before", "after", "during", "by" or "on." It is not the same as the "before" used with time above.

"Kings" is translated from a Greek word which means a "king" or "chief."

The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also"). 

"Governors" is the Greek for a leader of any kind, but the term was specifically used for the governors of provinces in Roman times. The word is the basis for our "hegemon".

The word translated as "for...sake" means "on account of", "because," and "in consequence of."

"My" is the first-person possessive singular pronoun. 

The Greek word translated as "name" is much more complicated than it might at first appear. It can simply mean a "name" as in English, this can be many things. It doesn't mean the thing itself, but what people call it. For example, it can mean a "false name," or "a pretense" as we say "this is a marriage in name only." It can also mean representing another person's authority, as we say, "he is acting in the name of the boss."

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

πρὸ (prep) "Before" is pros, which means "on the side of", "in the direction of", "from (place)", "towards" "before", "in the presence of", "in the eyes of", "in the name of", "by reason of", "before (supplication)", "proceeding from (for effects)", "dependent on", "derivable from", "agreeable,""becoming", "like", "at the point of", "in addition to", "against," and "before." --

δὲ (conj/adv) "But" is de which means "but" and "on the other hand." It is the particle that joins sentences in an adversarial way but can also be a weak connective ("and") and explanation of cause ("so") and a condition ("if").

τούτων ( adj pl neut/masc/fem gen ) "These" is toutou, which is a demonstrative pronoun that means "this", "here", "the nearer," and "the familiar."

πάντων ( adj pl masc gen ) "All" is pas, which means "all", "the whole", "every", "anyone", "all kinds," and "anything." In the adverbial form, it means "every way", "on every side", "in every way," and "altogether." --

ἐπιβαλοῦσιν ( verb 3rd pl fut ind act  or verb 3rd pl aor subj act ) "They shall lay" is epiballo, which means to "throw or cast upon", "lay on", " affix (a seal, add),"" contribute", "place next in order", "let grow", "let loose", "throw oneself upon", "go straight towards", "follow", "come next", "belong to", "fall to the share of", "shut to", "close", "to overlap (in logic)," and in the passive to "lie upon", "be put upon," and "be set over." --

ἐφ᾽ (prep) "On" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against." --

ὑμᾶς (pron 2nd pl acc) "You" is humas which is the plural form of su the pronoun of the second person, "you."

τὰς χεῖρας ( noun pl fem acc ) "Hands" is cheir (cheir) which means "the hand and arm," and "with the help of agency of another." Like "hand" in English, it has a lot of meanings including "an act or deed", "a body of people," and the measurement "handful." --

αὐτῶν (adj plmasc gen) "Theirs" (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." -- 

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

διώξουσιν,  ( verb 3rd pl fut ind act or verb 3rd pl aor subj act) "Persecute" is from diôkô (dioko), which means "to cause to run", "to set into motion", "to pursue", "to chase [away]," to follow", "to seek after," "to be hurried (passive)," "to urge on", "to prosecute [legally]", " or "to drive."

παραδιδόντες ( part pl pres act masc nom ) "Delivering" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another", "to transmit", "to hand down", "to grant", "to teach," and "to bestow."

εἰς (prep) "To" is eis, which means "into (of place)," "up to (of time)", "until (of time)", "as much as (of measure or limit)", "as far as (of measure or limit)", "towards (to express relation)", "in regard to (to express relation)", "of an end or limit," and "for (of purpose or object)."

τὰς συναγωγὰς ( noun pl fem acc ) "Synagogue" is synagoge, which means a "bringing together", "assembly", "place of assembly", "contracting", "collection", "combination", "conclusion," and "demonstration." It comes from a Greek word Christ uses commonly, sunagô, to mean "gather" or "bring together."

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

φυλακάς, ( noun pl fem acc ) "Prisons" is phylake, which means "a watching or guarding", "a guard", "a ward", "a watch", " "a station", "a post," "a keeping", "a preserving", "safekeeping", "a safe-guard," and "a precaution."

ἀπαγομένους ( part pl pres mp masc acc ) "Being brought" is ago, which means to "lead", "carry", "bring", "fetch", "take with one", "carry of", "bear up", "remove", "lead to a point", "lead", "guide", "manage", "refer", "bring up", "train", "educate", "reduce", "draw out (in length)", "hold", "celebrate", "observe (a date)", "pass (Time)", "hold account", "treat", "draw down (in the scale)," and "weight."

ἐπὶ (prep) "Before" is epi, which means "on", "over",  "upon", "at", "by", "before", "across," "after" in position, "during", and "against."

βασιλεῖς ( noun pl masc acc ) "Kings" is basileus, which means a "king", "chief", "prince", "lord", "master", "a great man," and "the first and most distinguished of any class." It is a form of the word used for "kingdom." --

καὶ (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just."

ἡγεμόνας (noun pl masc acc ) "Governors" is hegemon, which means "one who leads", "leader", "commander", "chief," and "one who does a thing first." The term was specifically used for the governors of provinces in Roman times. --

ἕνεκεν (prep) "For...sake" is heneka, which means "on account of", "as far as regards", "in consequence of," and "because."

τοῦ ὀνόματός ( noun sg neut gen ) "Name" is onoma, which means "name." It means both the reputation of "fame," and "a name and nothing else," as opposed to a real person. Acting in someone's name means to act on their behalf, as their representative.

μου: (pro sg masc gen) "My" is mou, which mean "my," or "mine." -

Front Page Date: 

Dec 31 2018