Luke 22:22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined:

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

Because the son certainly of the man, in accordance with the one whcih has been determined by itself, he is departed 'from life] by himself. Except  too bad for the man, that one there, through whom he gives himself over.

KJV : 

Luke 22:22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This verse contains the Greek word equivalent of "amen," which makes it humorous. Humor is also indicated by the word translated as "woe." The verbs used makes it clear that Jesus is choosing these things for himself. And again, the KJV changes the meaning conjunction because Jesus was likely answering people's questions here. There is a play on words in the word translated as "goeth," and there is also a "sound alike" play on words with it. And, as we often see, this verse is translated so it sounds more like its parallel in Matthew 26:24 than it really is. Oh, and it also has a unique word for Jesus, which is always a bonus and frequently a sign of his being precise and/or making a joke.

The word translated as "and" introduces a statement of fact or cause. It is usually translated as "for" or "because." It is used primarily by Jesus in answering a question. It is not anything like the conjunction "and" in Greek. It was likely changed because the "because" doesn't seem to flow from his last set of answers.

The Greek word translated as "truly" means "indeed," "certainly," "surely," and "truly." This word is the Greek version of the Aramaic "amen," which also means "truly." Since "a" is a negative prefix in Greek, the Aramaic word, amen, means "not true" in Greek. This is one of Jesus's recurring bits of humor with the sense that what was true for the Greek was not true for the Judeans. See this article for more about amen. However, here it does not begin the sentence, it appears between the "son" and "of man," a unique position, perhaps making fun of another of his pet phrases.

The phrase "the son of man" is the common way Christ refers to himself. It is discussed in detail in this article. Its sense is "the child of the man." The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "descendant." The Greek word for "of man" in the singular means "person" and "humanity" and "people" and "peoples" in the plural.

The Greek verb translated as "goes" means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to depart from life." Jesus uses it to say :"deaprt to people "go away" when followed by "from me." --

The word translated as "as" means "down from," "down into," "separately," "in accordance with," "concerning," "corresponding with," "during the course of a period," and "severally."  It has a form that means "just as," which is what appears in Matthew 26:24, but the preposition form is used here.

The word translated as "it" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one." Here, it is used before an adjective form of a verb. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this," "that," "these," "those"). See this article for more. The sense here is "the one which." The form is neuter, so it doesn't refer to a person by a thing, here, an action.

"Was determined" is a unique verb for Jesus to use. It means to " divide," "separate from, as a border or boundary,"  "define a thing," "mark out for oneself," "determine for oneself," and  , "to be defined" in the passive. Here is is in the passive middle voice in the tense indicated something completed in the past, so "has been determined by itself" or "has been decided by itself." "Itself" because the article before it was neuter.

The word translated as "but" is a less common preposition used like a conjunction that means "except," "save," "besides," and "in addition to."

"Woe" is an exclamation of grief, meaning "woe" or "alas." However, Christ seems to use it humorously. Every verse in which it appears have the hallmarks of Christ's humor. Today we would say "so sad [for you]" or "boo-hoo to you." The word is very like the Yiddish, "oy veh" which can be used to express sorrow but with is more commonly used cynically or humorously. More about this phrase in this article on Christ's humor, under the subtitle, "exaggeration."

"Unto" is from the form of the words "that man."   This form requires the addition of a preposition in English to capture its meaning, a "to" as an indirect object, a "with" for instruments, an "in" for locations, an "as" for purposes, an "of" for possession, a "by" for agents, an "as" for comparisons, and an "in" for area of affect.

The word translated as "that" is an adjective that highlights its noun as being in a specific place or time from a word that means "there."

The Greek word for "man" means "man," "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people," and "peoples." 

The word translated as "by" means "through," in the midst of," or "by (a cause)."

The word translated as "whom" is a demonstrative pronoun ("this" "that"), but it often acts as a pronoun ("the one that), especially a connective pronoun ("whom") introducing a dependent clause.

"He is betrayed!" is a compound word which literally means "to give over." It is often translated in the KJV as "betray" but it has no real sense of that except as we would use "turn over" or "turn in" in reference to a criminal. Here is is in the passive middle voice in the present tense, so "gives himself over" or "turns himself over."

Wordplay: 

The word translated as "goeth" also means to "depart from life" and the one translated as "is betrayed"are sound alikes with similar endings.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

ὅτι (adv/conj) "And" is hoti, which introduces a statement of fact "with regard to the fact that," "seeing that," and acts as a causal adverb meaning "for what," "because," "since," and "wherefore." -- The word translated as "that" introduces a statement of fact or cause.

υἱὸς ( noun sg masc nom ) "The Son" is huios, which means a "son," and more generally, a "child." It is used generally to refer to any male descendant. -- The word translated as "son" more generally means "child" or "children." It can refer to all offspring in later generations, just like "father" refers to all previous generations. Jesus also used it metaphorically to describe those who follow a way of thought or set of beliefs that descend from an individual. More about it in this article.

μὲν (partic) "Truly" is men, which is generally used to express certainty and means "indeed," "certainly," "surely," and "truly."

τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (noun sg masc gen) "Of man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. -- The Greek word for "man" means "man," "person" and "humanity" in the singular. In the plural, it means "men," "people," and "peoples." 

κατὰ (prep) "As" is kata, which, as a preposition, means "downwards," "down from," "down into," "against," "down toward," "opposite," "separately," "individually," "at a time," "towards," "in accordance with," "concerning," "corresponding with," "during the course of a period," and "severally."

τὸ  ( article sg neut acc/nom ) "It" is the Greek definite article, which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones." --

ὡρισμένον [unique]( part sg perf mp neut acc/nom ) "It was determined" is horizo, which means to " divide," "separate from, as a border or boundary," "bound," "mark out by boundaries," "mark out," "ordain," "determine," "lay down," "define a thing," "mark out for oneself," "determine for oneself," and  , "to be defined" in the passive.

πορεύεται, ( verb 3rd sg pres ind mp )  "Goeth" is poreuomai (poreuô) which means "make to go," "carry," "convey," "bring," "go," "march," and "proceed." It is almost always translated as "go" in the NT. -- The Greek verb translated as "go" is the most common verb translated as "go" in the NT. This word means "to lead over," "depart," and "to carry over." This word, however, uniquely means both "to pursue a course" and "to depart from life." Since it is in a form that acts on itself, the sense is "take yourselves." --

πλὴν (prep) "But" is from plen, which is a preposition meaning "except," "save," "besides," and "in addition to." Often used with the negative as a conjunction, "except not." -- 

οὐαὶ (exclam) "Woe" is ouai, which is an exclamation of pain or anger meaning "woe" or "alas" but it can be used sarcastically. --

τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ( noun sg masc dat ) "Man" is anthropos, which is "man," and, in plural, "mankind." It also means "humanity" and that which is human and opposed to that which is animal or inanimate. --

ἐκείνῳ ( adj sg masc dat ) "He" is ekeinos, which means "the person there," "that person," "that thing," "in that case," "in that way," "at that place," and "in that manner."

δι᾽ (prep) "By" is dia which means "through," "in the midst of," "in a line (movement)," "throughout (time)," "by (causal)," "among," and "between." --

οὗ ( pron sg masc gen ) "Whom" is hos, which means "this," "that," "he," "she," "which," "what," "who," "whosoever," "where," "for which reason," and many similar meanings.

παραδίδοται. ( verb 3rd sg pres ind mp) "He is betrayed" is paradidomi, which means "to give over to another," "to transmit," "to hand down," "to grant," "to teach," and "to bestow."

Front Page Date: 

Feb 5 2019