Mark 12:8 And they took him, and killed [him]...

Greek : 

Literal Verse: 

And getting him, they destroyed him , and tossed him out of the vineyard.

KJV : 

Mark 12:8 And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.

Interesting and Hidden Aspects: 

This parable has had many uncommon words, but there are none in this final verse. However, there are still signs of the light-hearted tone of this final parable.

Notice that the "tossing out of the vineyard" is a completely unnecessary phrase, but the word translated as "cast" or "threw" is one that Jesus often uses humorously in the sense of "toss."  He commonly uses it for the catch phrase "toss into the gehenna ("hell")," but here he changes the phrase to being toss out of the vineyard.  The "vineyard" is the punchline.

NIV : 

Mark 12:8  So they took him and killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard.

3rd Translation: 

Mark 12:8 So they grabbed him and murdered him and threw his body out of the vineyard.

Related Verses: 

Greek Vocabulary: 

καὶ  (conj/adv) "And" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." 

λαβόντες ( part pl aor act masc nom ) "They took" is lambano means to "take", "take hold of", "grasp", "seize", "catch", "overtake", "find out", "detect", "take as", "take [food or drugs]", "understand", "take in hand", "undertake", "take in", "hold", "get", "receive [things]", "receive hospitably", "receive in marriage", "receive as produce", "profit", "admit", "initiate", "take hold of", "lay hold on", "seize and keep hold of", "obtain possession of", "lay hands upon", "find fault with", "censure," "to apprehend with the senses", "to take hold of," and "to seize." It is also specifically used to mean "seized with emotion."

ἀπέκτειναν ( verb 3rd pl aor ind act ) "To kill" is apokteino, which means "to kill," and "to slay." It combines the word for "to slay" (kteino) with the proposition, apo, indicating separation, meaning "from" or "away from."but it is a stronger form than the normal verb kteino. It is more like our "destroy." It is in the form of a present participle, "destroying" acting as a noun ("those destroying").

αὐτόν, (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

καὶ  (conj/adv) "So" is kai, which is the conjunction joining phrases and clauses, "and," or "but." After words implying sameness, "as" (the same opinion as you). Used in series, joins positive with negative "Not only...but also." Also used to give emphasis, "even", "also," and "just." -

ἐξέβαλον  ( verb 3rd pl aor ind act ) "Cast out" is ekballo and means "throw out", "cast out of a place,"and "expose." Ek means "out of", "from," and "away from." Ballo is "to throw" or "to scatter."

αὐτὸν (adj sg masc acc) "Him" is autos, which means "the same," and the reflexive pronouns, "myself", "yourself", "himself", "herself", "itself," or the oblique case of the pronouns, "him", "her," and "it." It also means "one's true self," that is, "the soul" as opposed to the body and "of one's own accord." In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there."

ἔξω  (adv) "Out" is exo, which means "out of a place", "outside", "external things," and "beyond a time." -- The word translated as "out" means "out of a place" and "outside."

τοῦ (article sg masc gen) "The" is the Greek definite article, hos, ("the"), which usually precedes a noun and, without a noun, takes the meaning of "the one" or, in the plural, "the ones."

ἀμπελῶνος. ( noun sg masc gen ) "Vineyard" is ampelon which means simply "vineyard."

KJV Analysis: 

And -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

took -- (WF) The word translated as "took" primarily means "take." However, it means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. The form is not an active verb, but an adjective, "taking."

him, -- This English pronoun is from the earlier Greek pronoun following the verb translated as "killed."  In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

and -- (IW) These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation. 

killed -- "Killed" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay."

him, -- This is where the Greek pronoun translated as "him" actually appears.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

cast -- "Cast" is a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT.

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

out -- This is from the prefix that means "out"of the previous verb

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

vineyard. -- "Vineyard" is the Greek noun that means simply "vineyard."

KJV Translation Issues: 

2
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "took" is not an active verb but a participle, "taking."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

NIV Analysis: 

So --(WW)  The Greek word translated as "so" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

took -- (WF) The word translated as "took" primarily means "take." However, it means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. The form is not an active verb, but an adjective, "taking."

him, -- This English pronoun is from the earlier Greek pronoun following the verb translated as "killed."  In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

and -- (IW) These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation. 

killed -- "Killed" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay."

him, -- This is where the Greek pronoun translated as "him" actually appears.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

threw -- "Threw" is a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT.

him -- The word translated as "him" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The word means "the same" when used as an adjective. In the adverbial form, it  means "just here" or "exactly there." 

out -- This is from the prefix that means "out"of the previous verb

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

vineyard. -- "Vineyard" is the Greek noun that means simply "vineyard."

  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "so" means "and."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "took" is not an active verb but a participle, "taking."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

3rd Analysis: 

So --(WW)  The Greek word translated as "so" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

they -- This is from the third-person, singular form of the verb.

grabbed -- (WF) The word translated as "grabbed" primarily means "take." However, it means "receive" in the same sense that we use "get" to mean "receive" and has many different uses as we use "get" in English. The form is not an active verb, but an adjective, "grabbing."

him, -- This English pronoun is from the earlier Greek pronoun following the verb translated as "killed."  In Greek, pronoun objects are not repeated after each verb because they are implied by their first occurrence.

and -- (IW) These is no "and" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation. 

murdered-- "Murdered" is translated from a Greek word that means "destroy" more than just "kill" because the base word means "slay."

him, -- This is where the Greek pronoun translated as "him" actually appears.

and -- The Greek word translated as "and" is used as the conjunction "and", but it also is used to add emphasis ("also").

threw -- "Threw" is a verb that means "throw out." Depending on the context, it can mean "toss out", "turn out," or "take out." It is usually translated as "cast out" in the NT.

his --  (WF) The word translated as "his" is the Greek word commonly translated as third-person pronouns in English.  The form is not the genitive, "his," but the accusative, "him."

body, -- (IW) These is no "body" here. It is added because the previous verb was  changed from an adjective to an active verb in translation. 

out -- This is from the prefix that means "out"of the previous verb

of -- This word comes from the genitive case of the following word(s) that required the addition of a preposition in English.  The most common is the "of" of possession, but it can also mean "belonging to," "part of", "which is", "than" (in comparisons), or  "for", "concerning" or "about" with transitive verbs. 

the -- The word translated as "the" is the Greek definite article. The Greek article is much closer to our demonstrative pronouns ("this", "that", "these", "those"). See this article for more. 

vineyard. -- "Vineyard" is the Greek noun that means simply "vineyard."

3rd Issue Count: 

5
  • WW - Wrong Word -- The word translated as "so" means "and."
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "took" is not an active verb but a participle, "taking."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "and" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.
  • WF - Wrong Form -  The "his" should be  "him."
  • IW - Inserted Word -- The word "body" doesn't exist in the source and isn't otherwise justified.

The Spoken Version: 

his is the third specific incident (and the fourth verse) in a series of abuse by the vine dressers. This in Christ's common symbolic pattern of three plus one or in this case, three within three,. Each of the individual cases here,  the three verbs represent the three key aspects of this event.

This incident is the emotional/relationship event because it involves the son.  In it, "receive" represents the mental aspect. "Killed" is the physical aspect. "Cast out" is the emotional/relationship aspect.

In the first incident was the mental version: "Receive" represents the mental aspect. "Beaten" is the physical aspect. "Sent away" is the emotional/relationship aspect.  For obvious reason, this event doesn't have a spiritual aspect.

In the second was the physical: "Stoning" is the physical aspect. "Wounded in the head" represents the mental aspect. "Sent away" is the emotional/relationship aspect.  For obvious reasons, this event doesn't have a spiritual aspect.

The question is: Why the pattern? It is a storytelling device or is there a deeper message? Remember, the first place we see this pattern is in the three temptations of Christ.  The pattern of the three temporal realms represents how we are separated from the eternal by getting trapped in the temporal. Here, the error begins with the desire for wealth and greed, which belong to the mental realm. It then proceeds through the physical, ending with the severing of relationships.

Front Page Date: 

Nov 17 2019